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Particles in Free Indirect Discourse

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Chapter Summary

This chapter uses temporal and evaluative/commentary items in combination in order to diagnose the intended context(s) of interpretation. Based on this combined evidence, one can infer systematic patterns of context shift and isolate extra readings for single words. The chapter investigates how reference to sp indicates free indirect speech and thought. It also sees how the information content of the utterance factors into asserted content, pre-supposition, and expressive content, taking up our earlier observations on update. The chapter recapitulates our findings for leider which offers an ideal test case, given that it has a comparatively clear and specific emotive content. It next covers ja, a certain use of also, epistemic wohl and doch. Particles and speaker oriented adverbs convey information about the speaker. Particles are investigated in combination with temporal indexicals. The chapter argues that paradoxical interpretations only arise for indexicals jetzt/now and hier/here.

Keywords: doch; epistemic wohl; free indirect speech; leider; paradoxical interpretations; temporal indexicals



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