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Forbidden in Shifted Speech

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Chapter Summary

This chapter investigates sentences that can never be interpreted as free indirect discourse. Specifically, it looks at imperatives and vocatives. Both constructions are banned from both (free) indirect thought and indirect speech. The chapter surveys the data and illustrates this ban for either case. It discusses how they relate to utterance context. In each case, the aim is to provide an explanation for the observed prohibition. The proposed analyses remain sketchy in respects orthogonal to the topic and are not designed to comprehensively cover all possible observations for the constructions in question. However, the chapter uses the present account for rigid and shiftable reference to contexts as our background for investigating the indexical nature of imperatives and vocatives. It reviews data showing that imperatives and vocatives are prohibited in free indirect discourse. The chapter illustrates the prohibition for the imperative in English and German.

Keywords: English; free indirect discourse; German; imperatives; indexical nature; indirect speech; observed prohibition; utterance context; vocatives

10.1163/9789004266735_010
/content/books/b9789004266735_010
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