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3 The Highlands and the ‘Fiscal-Military’ State

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Chapter Summary

This chapter assesses the place of the Highlands through exploration of two broad issues. It considers the Highland contribution to the fiscal and military resources of the Scottish state. The chapter looks at the role of the military in the government of the region, focusing in particular on why force was used, and the manner in which it was deployed. The concept of a 'military-revolution' remains one of the most familiar debates in the historiography of early-modern Europe. With these reforms, it is generally agreed, Karl XI transformed Sweden into one of the most effective 'fiscal-military' states of seventeenth-century Europe. Despite the importance of both military reinforcement and armed watches, they were not the most prominent of the Restoration regime's military tactics in the Highlands. The thesis of the early-modern 'fiscal-military' state seeks to make sense of the vastly expanded size and reach of many European governments in this period.

Keywords: fiscal-military states; Karl XI; Scottish highlands; seventeenth-century Europe; Sweden



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