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10 Looking through the Leventhal Lens: Is Gender Equity in the Philippines a Puzzle?

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Chapter Summary

Pakistan and the Philippines are populous Asian countries and have similar economic development levels. However, the disparity in the status of women across both countries is substantial. Jabeen proposes a Gender, Organization and Systems (GOS) model, an application of Leventhal's concept of equity, to understand the pathways to a fair distribution of outcomes across gender and, specifically, the low levels of participation in governance of Pakistani women. The author utilizes Jabeen's analytical framework to discuss the case of Filipino women. In the Philippines, males have few advantages over females in economic participation and opportunities, health and education outcomes and political empowerment. Equitable gender outcomes in the Philippines appear to be mostly driven by informal processes, rather than formal mechanisms. Overall, gender outcomes in the Philippines seem to be fair, not only in distribution but also in procedure.

Keywords: Filipino women; Gender, Organization and Systems (GOS) model; Jabeen's analytical framework; Leventhal's concept of equity; Philippines



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