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Migration and Colonial Enterprise in Nineteenth Century Java

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Chapter Summary

The migrations to plantations in Java and across Street Sunda into Lampung would lay the foundation for further and wider migratory movements: from the late nineteenth century onwards, hundreds of thousands of Javanese went to East Sumatra and the almost the same number made the Haj to Mecca. Moreover, in the early twentieth century urban migration developed that would pave the way for an outflow of migration for construction work in Malaysia and domestic service in Malaysia and the Arabian Peninsula in the course of the twentieth century. Initially in the early nineteenth century, the colonial government tried to control movements of the Javanese rural population. For the last thirty years of the nineteenth century, a trek emerged roughly from West to East Java and to the Priangan, which was a direct consequence of the rapidly growing demand for plantation labor.

Keywords: colonial government; Javanese seasonal workers; migratory movements; Priangan mountains



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