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Chapter Summary

Modern Belgium dates from the Revolution of 1830, when the provinces that constitute roughly the present country separated from The Netherlands. Belgium's independence was confirmed by the Treaty of London, of 15 November 1831, and eventually recognized by The Netherlands in 1839. With respect to the unification of Germany and Italy, Belgian law regarded as still in effect treaties concluded by Belgium and the former states from which Germany and Italy were constituted. Constitutional reform, culminating in 1993, has converted Belgium from a unitary to a federal state, separated into three regions. By the terms of Article 127, Section 1, the regions have power to conclude treaties only in matters relating to culture and some aspects of education. Inclusion of self-executing treaties in Belgian law requires no special act of parliament.

Keywords: Belgium; Germany; Italy; Netherlands



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