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Chapter Summary

Literary and epigraphic references to the marzēaḥ occur in a variety of geographical locations over a span of three thousand years. The examination of all extra-biblical references identified three elements that are present in both early and late attestations of the marzēaḥ, namely: (1) extensive alcohol consumption (2) by members of the upper class (3) in a religious context. Using these three features as the minimum requirements for any marzēaḥ allusion resulted in the identification of a restricted but more certain corpus of marzēaḥ texts in the prophetic literature than had previously been established. In addition to the explicit references at Amos 6: 7 and Jer 16:5, ten possible allusions to the marzēaḥ were considered, of which only four have been accepted as definitely alluding to the marzēaḥ: Amos 4:1; Hos 4:16-19; Isa 28:7-8(22) and Ezek 39:17-20.

Keywords: Amos; Jeremiah; marzēaḥ; prophetic literature



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