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8 Chinese Scholarship and Teaching in Eighteenth-Century Kyoto

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Chapter Summary

This chapter gives a short description of the phenomenon of private academies as it existed in Kyoto in the second half of the eighteenth century. It shows, by the example of the two most important figures (Emura Hokkai and Minagawa Kien) in the field of Chinese studies in Kyoto. 'Kyoto' represents a most interesting experiment with a free market for secondary education. In view of the all too human predilection for a tenured job, and the persistent East-Asian bias for service to the state as the supreme career, some of the masters may not have been quite satisfied with their situation, but whether they wanted it or not, they were all subject to the pressures of the market. Any other career opportunities, which in practice mostly meant appointments by daimyō patrons to positions within a domain, were predicated on their performance in this market.

Keywords: Chinese scholars; Emura Hokkai; free market; Kyoto; Minagawa Kien



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