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13 A Religious Response to Ghazan Khan’s Invasions of Syria. The Three “Anti-Mongol” fatwās of Ibn Taymiyya

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Chapter Summary

This chapter analyses the three so-called anti-Mongol fatwās issued by Ibn Taymiyya. Some of the groups that must be fought are classified as bughāt, a term which in the early years of Islam designated those who rebelled against legitimate authority. Ibn Taymiyya also includes in the category of groups to be fought those who fail to perform any one of the requirements of Islam, such as the performance of the five canonical prayers, the payment of legally-required tax, fasting and the pilgrimage to Mecca. Since they called for obedience to the prescriptions of the Qurʾān, they could not be excluded from the Islamic community. However, they asserted what it was not permitted, that part of the Sunna of the Prophet contradicted the Book of God. Ibn Taymiyya's arguments against the Mongols are the same as those used by Ghazan Khan to denounce the Mamluk regime.

Keywords: anti-Mongol fatwās; fasting; Ghazan Khan; Ibn Taymiyya; Islam; Mamluk regime; Mecca; Qurʾān



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