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4 Institutional Development

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Chapter Summary

The indulgences were part of the privileges granted to crusaders in order to make them go, to protect their interests while on crusade, and to give them proper rewards for their toil. This chapter looks at the various formulas that were used by the popes to denote spiritual privileges for crusades in our period (until 1216), and at the development towards a more fixed formula. It examines the significance of the particular formulas by looking at how rare or how frequent they were, and at the purposes they were employed for, apart from crusades. The survey of the papal proclamations of crusade indulgences has demonstrated that the indulgence remained essentially a commutation of penance; similarly, the survey of the writings of the theologians also found that they continued to explain the indulgences on the lines of commutations.

Keywords: commutation of penance; crusaders; indulgences; papal proclamations; spiritual privileges; theologians



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