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Chapter Summary

A regular alteration made by the translator concerns the system of dating used by William. In general, William's preference for classical nomenclature and terminology was able to be understood by the translator. He regularly had to translate the Latin forms into the vernacular, particularly in regard to place names. Most names, such as 'Antiochena' or 'Ierosolima', had an equivalent in France, i.e., 'Antioche' and 'Jherusalem'. Some places were known under a different name. There are few instances in which the translator appears unsure of William's designations. A major instance in which the translator provides an incorrect translation refers to the city of Barcelona, which William said was 'de Citeriore…Hispania', but the translator replaced with 'en Navarre'. It seems likely that the French text preserves the correct form that has been lost during copying errors in the Latin manuscripts.

Keywords: Barcelona; French text; Latin manuscript; vernacular; William



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