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Chapter Summary

In the last twenty-five years a body of international research on masculinities has consolidated and important conclusions of this research are as follows: there are multiple masculinities, there are hierarchies of masculinities, often defining a hegemonic pattern for a given society; masculinities are collective as well as individual; masculinities are actively constructed in social life; masculinities are internally complex; masculinities change throughout history. Certain masculinities operate in global, not just local, arenas. We can trace this historically through the phases of imperialism, colonialism, de-colonization, and contemporary globalization. New masculinities are also emerging in global business. At the same time, movements that aim to reform masculinities have developed in many countries. While many men resist change because of the dividend they get from patriarchal gender systems, there are also important motives for men to change their gender practices. The article argues that such changes or reforms are most likely to be successful when they emphasize social justice as well as gender diversity or de-gendering.



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