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Chapter Summary

The article presents a formalization of Anselm’s so-called Ontological Arguments from Proslogion. The main idea of our research is to stay to the original text as close as is possible. We show, against some common opinions, that(i) the logic necessary for the formalization must be neither a purely sentential modal calculus, nor just non-modal first-order logic, but a modal first-order theory;(ii) such logic cannot contain logical axiom ⌜A → ◊A⌝;(iii) none of Anselm’s reasonings requires the assumptions that God is a consistent object or that existence of God is possible (in symbols “◊Eg”);(iv) no such thing as the so-called Anselm’s Principle (in symbols “□(Eg → □Eg)”) is involved in any of the proofs;Moreover we show a single line of reasoning underlying the whole Proslogion and allowing Anselm to deduce many theorems concerning God’s nature. Last but not least we study the possibility of proving the uniqueness of God within the outlined theory.



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