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The impact of the opening of Tianjin on economic changes in its hinterland

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Although the opening of Tianjin was forced, it actually accelerated the connection of Tianjin and its hinterland with the international market. The opening brought great changes to the structure of agriculture, animal husbandry, and industry and commerce in the hinterland; encouraged the development of market orientation and international orientation in the hinterland’s economy; and greatly improved the occupational organization and income of most farmers and herdsmen. The opening resulted in great progress for the whole modern economy of the hinterland and thereby provided an exemplary case for the study of problems related to the economic modernization process of China.


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