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The social background of the emergence of regional merchant groups in the Ming Dynasty

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In the mid-Ming Dynasty, the means of transportation were greatly improved; commodity production became more developed; silver was gradually monetized; commercial taxes became lighter; and social attitudes towards merchants changed. All these developments created a favorable environment for the formation of regional merchant groups. Meanwhile, social factors at the regional level—characteristics of local commodity production, favorable natural environment and production structures, as well as Ming government’s practice of border defense, border trade, foreign policy, local customs, and the interpretation of commercial activities of local people—all contributed to the emergence of merchant groups.

10.1007/s11462-007-0020-x
/content/journals/10.1007/s11462-007-0020-x
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/content/journals/10.1007/s11462-007-0020-x
2007-01-01
2016-12-07

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