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A Comparison of Local Autonomy in Shanghai and Tianjin in the Late Qing: From the Perspective of the Establishment of City Administrative Organizations

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By focusing on the establishment of city administrative organizations, this paper attempts to explore the differences between the local autonomy of Shanghai and Tianjin with a particular emphasis on the causes, purpose, founders, philosophy, form, content and effects. As two of the earliest cities implementing local autonomy, Shanghai and Tianjin are different in many ways due to the different background of their initiators and the social forces involved. By analyzing these differences and their individual characteristics, this paper attempts to explore the ways in which urban administrative organizations were established in China.


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