Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here


No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Israel Journal of Plant Sciences

The effects of embryo envelopes dealt with here are: impermeability to water, impermeability to oxygen, and mechanical resistance to radicle protrusion. To prevent water penetration, one or more layers of the embryo envelopes, as well as all possible openings in it such as the hilum or chalaza of the seed coat, should be watertight. This layer usually consists of compactly arranged cells, with various hydrophobic compounds impregnated into the cellulose network of the walls and/or deposited upon them. Restriction of oxygen without hindrance of water penetration may be due to a long path through which the dissolved oxygen has to diffuse in water, to a continuous layer of mucilage covering the embryo, to oxygen-consuming compounds in the envelopes, and to selective permeability of living cells. Resistance to radicle penetration is caused by any type of mechanical tissue that has a higher mechanical restraining force than the growth potential of the embryo.

Affiliations: 1: Department of Botany, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. Aitken Y."The problem of hard seeds in subterranean clover."Proc. R. Soc. Victoria (N.S.)1939Vol 51187212(Cited by Williams and Elliott, 1960.)
2. Ballard L.A.T."Physical barriers to germination."Seed Sci. Technol.1973Vol 1285303
3. Barton L.V."Special studies on seed coat impermeability."Contrib. Boyce Thompson Inst.1947Vol 14355362
4. Barton L.V.,"Dormancy in seeds imposed by the seed coat."Handbuch der Pflanzenphysiologie. Ruhland W.Springer VerlagBerlin1965Vol XV/2727745Bd
5. Barton L.V., Crocker W."Twenty Years of Seed Research at Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research."Faber & FaberLondon1948
6. Beadle N.C.W."Studies in halophytes. I. The germination of the seed and establishment of the seedlings of five species of Atriplex in Australia"Ecology1952Vol 334962
7. Bewley J.D., Halmer P."81."Embryo-endosperm interaction in the hydrolysis of lettuce seed reserves. Isr. J. Bot.1980Vol 29118132/
8. Black M."Dormancy studies in seed of Avena fatua"I. The possible role of germination inhibitors. Can. J. Bot.1959Vol 37393402
9. Black M., Wareing P.F."The role of germination inhibitors and oxygen in the dormancy of the light sensitive seed of Betula spp."J. Exp. Bot.1959Vol 10134145
10. Borthwick H.A., Robbins W.W."Lettuce seed and its germination."Hilgardia1928Vol 3275304
11. Brant R.E., McKee G.W., Cleveland R.W."Effect of chemical and physical treatment on hard seed of Penngift crownvetch."Crop Sci.1971Vol 1116(Cited by Rolston, 1978.)
12. Brown R."An experimental study of the permeability to gases of the seed-coat membranes of Cucurbita pepo"Ann. Bot. N.S.1940Vol 4379395
13. Bullowa S., Negbi M., Ozeri Y."Role of temperature, light and growth regulators in germination in Anemone coronaria L."Aust. J. Plant Physiol.1975Vol 291100
14. Callihan R.H."The hard seed mechanism in Convolvulus arvensis L."Oregon State UniversityCorvallis1961and the influence of environmental variables upon germination. M.S. Thesis. 86 pp. (Cited by Rolston, 1978.)
15. Cavazza L."Beitrag zur Erkennung von hartschaligen Leguminosensamen."Sweiz. Landw. Mh.1950Vol 28378. (Cited by Spurny, 1973.)
16. Chen S.S.C."Germination of light-inhibited seed of Nemophtta insignis"Am. J. Bot.1968Vol 5511771183
17. Christiansen M.N., Moore R.P."Seed coat structural differences that influence water uptake and seed quality in hard seed cotton."Agron. J.1959Vol 51582584
18. Coe H.S., Martin J.N."Sweet-clover seed. U.S. Dept. Agric. Bull. No. 844."192039
19. Cohen A."Studies on the viability of citrus seeds and certain properties of their coats."Bull. Res. Counc. Isr.1956Vol 5D200209
20. Cme D."L'inhibition de germination des graines de Pommier (Pirns malus L.) non dormantes."Rle possible des phnols tgumentaires. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. Biol. Veg.1967Vol 8371478
21. Cme D., Tissaoui T.,"Interrelated effects of imbibition, temperature and oxygen on seed germination."Seed Ecology. Heydecker W.ButterworthsLondon1973157168
22. Corner E.J.H."The leguminous seed."Phytomorphology1951Vol 1117150
23. Corner E.J.H."The Seeds of Dicotyledons."Cambridge University PressCambridge19762 Vols
24. Cox L.G., Munger H.M., Smith E.A."A germination inhibitor in the seed coats of certain varieties of cabbages."Plant Physiol.1945Vol 20289294
25. Crocker W."Role of seed coats in delayed germination."Bot. Gaz.1906Vol 42265291
26. Crocker W."Mechanisms of dormancy in seeds."Am. J. Bot.1916Vol 399120
27. Crocker W."Growth of Plants. Twenty Years' Research at Boyce Thompson Institute. Reinhold Publ. Corp., N.Y."1948459
28. Crocker W., Barton L.V."Physiology of Seeds. Chronica Bot."1953
29. Curtis E.J., Cantlon J.E."Seed dormancy and germination in Melampyrum lineare"Am. J. Bot.1968Vol 552632
30. Davis W.E."Primary dormancy, after-ripening, and the development of secondary dormancy in embryos of Ambrosia trifida"Contrib. Boyce Thompson Inst.1930Vol 2285303
31. Denny F.E."Permeability of membranes as related to their composition."Bot. Gaz.1917Vol 63468485(Cited by Spurny, 1972.)
32. Eames A.J., MacDaniels L.H."An Introduction to Plant Anatomy."McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.New York1947and London
33. Elliott B.B., Leopold A.C."An inhibitor of germination and of amylase activity in oat seeds."Physiol. Plant.1953Vol 66577
34. Evenari M."Germination inhibitors."Bot. Rev.1949Vol 15153194
35. Fahn A., Werker E.,"Anatomical mechanisms of seed dispersal."Seed Biology. Kozlowski T.T.Academic Press Inc.New York1972
36. Frey Wyssling A."Die Pflanzliche Zellwand."Springer VerlagBerlin1959
37. Grubert M."Studies on the distribution of myxospermy among seeds and fruits of Angiospermae and its ecological importance."Acta Biol. Venez.1974Vol 8315551
38. Gutterman Y."Seed coat permeability as function of photoperiodical treatments of the mother plants during seed maturation in the desert annual plant: Trigonella arabica, Del."J. Arid Environ.1978Vol 1141144
39. Gutterman Y., Witztum A., Evenari M."Seed dispersal and germination in Blepharis persica (Burm.) Kuntze."Isr. J. Bot.1967Vol 16213234
40. Gutterman Y., Witztum A., Evenari M."Physiological and morphological differences between populations of Blepharis persica (Burm.) Kuntze."Isr. J. Bot.1969Vol 188995
41. Gutterman Y., Witztum A., Heydecker W."Studies of the surfaces of desert plant seeds. II. Ecological adaptations of the seeds of Blepharis persica"Ann. Bot.1973Vol 3710511055
42. Halmer P., Bewley J.D., Thorpe T.A."Enzyme to break down lettuce endosperm cell wall during gibberellin- and light-induced germination."Nature (London)1975Vol 258716718
43. Halmer P., Bewley J.D., Thorp T.A."An enzyme to degrade lettuce endosperm cell walls."Gibberellin-induced germination. Planta (Beri.)1976Vol 130189196
44. Hamly D.H."Softening of the seeds of Melilotus alba"Bot. Gaz.1932Vol 93345375
45. Hamly D."The light line in Melilotus alba"Bot. Gaz.1934Vol 96755757
46. Harrington G.T., Crocker W."Structure, physical characteristics, and composition of the pericarp and integument of Johnson grass seed in relation to its physiology."J. Agric. Res.1923Vol 23193222
47. Hay J.R."Experiments on the mechanism of induced dormancy in wild oats, Avena fatua L."Can. J. Bot.1962Vol 40191202
48. Hayward H.E."The Structure of Economic Plants."The Macmillan CompanyNew York1938
49. Hill A.W."The method of germination of seeds enclosed in a stony endocarp."Ann. Bot.1933Vol 47873887
50. Hinton J.J.C."Resistence of the testa to entry of water into the wheat kernel."Cereal Chem.1955Vol 32296306
51. Hhnel V.F."Sitzungsber."Dtsch. Knigl. Akad. Wiss. Wien Bd. LXXX Abt.1876Vol 1679. (Cited by Brown, 1940.)
52. Hutchinson J.M., Ashton F.M."Effect of desiccation and scarification on the permeability and structure of the seed coat of Cuscuta campestris"Am. J. Bot.1979Vol 664046
53. Hyde E.O.C."The function of the hilum in some Papilionaceae in relation to ripening of the seed and the permeability of the testa."Ann. Bot.1954Vol 18241256
54. Jones R.L."The structure of the lettuce endosperm."Planta1974Vol 121133146
55. Kadman-Zahavi A."Notes on the germination of Atriplex rosea"Bull. Res. Counc. Isr.1955Vol 4375378
56. Khan A.A.,"Seed dormancy: changing concepts and theories."The Physiology and Biochemistry of Seed Dormancy and Germination. Khan A.A.North-Holland Publishing CompanyAmsterdam1977
57. Khudairi A.K."Breaking the dormancy of Prosopis seeds."Physiol. Plant.1956Vol 9452461
58. Kidd E., West C."The controlling influence of carbon dioxide on the production of secondary dormancy in seed of Brassica alba following treatment with carbon dioxide and the relation of this phenomenon to the question of stimuli in growth processes."Ann. Bot.1917Vol 31456487
59. Koller D."Germination regulating mechanism in some desert seeds."I. Bull. Res. Counc. Isr.1955aVol 4379381
60. Koller D."Germination regulating mechanism in some desert seeds. II. Zygophyllum dumosum"Bull. Res. Counc. Isr.1955bVol 4381387
61. Koller D."Germination regulating mechanism in some desert seeds. IV. Atriplex dimorphostegia Kar et Kir."Ecology1957Vol 38113
62. Koller D., Tadmor N.H., Hillel D."Experiments in the propagation of Atriplex halimus L. for desert pasture and soil conservation"Ktavim1958Vol 983106
63. Kuehn O."Die Hartschaligkeit bei Lupinus angustifolius"Khn-Arch.1925Vol 9332404(Cited by Ballard, 1973.)
64. Kster E."Die PflanzerizeUe. Jena. 484 pp. (Cited by Spurn"19351972.)
65. Lerner H.R., Mayer A.M., Evenari M."The nature of the germination inhibitors present in dispersal units of Zygophylhim dumosum, Trigonella arabica"Physiol. Plant.1959Vol 12245250
66. Lona F."L'influenza delle condizioni ambientali durante l'embtiogefiesi, sulla caratteristiche del seme e della piante che ne deriva. Publ. Ist. Bot; Univ. Milano, Lavori Bot. (G. Golia Anniv. Vot.)"1947277316(Cited by Barton, 1965.)
67. Lute A.M."Impermeable seed of alfalfa. Colo. Agric. Exp. Stan. Bull. 326."1928
68. Maguire J.F.,"Seed dormancy."Advances in Research and Technology of seeds. Bradnock W.T.19754453Vol 1
69. Maguire J.D.,"Seed dormancy."Advances in Research and Technology of Seeds. Thomson J.R.1976926Vol 2
70. Marbach I., Mayer A.M."Permeability of seed coats to water as related to drying conditions and metabolism of phenolics."Plant Physiol.1974Vol 54817820
71. Marbach I., Mayer A.M."Changes in catechol oxidase aftd permeability of Pisum elatiiis during seed development and maturation."Plant Physiol.1975Vol 569396
72. Marbach I., Mayer A.M."Germination, utilization of storage materials and potential for cyanide release in cultivated and wild Sorghum"Physiol. Plant.1979Vol 47100104
73. Marchaim U., Werker E., Thomas W.D.E."Changes in the anatomy of cotton seed coats caused by lucerne saponins."Bot. Gaz.1974Vol 135139146
74. Martin C.C."The role of glumes and gibberellic acid in dormancy of Themeda triandra spikelets."Physiol. Plant.1975Vol 33171176
75. Mayer A.M., Poljakoff-Mayber A."The Germination of Seeds."Pergamon PressOxford1975
76. McKee G.W., Pfeiffer R.A., Mohsenin N.N."Seedcoat structure in Coronilla varia L. and its relation to hard seeds"Agron. J.1977Vol 695358(Cited by Rolston, 1978.)
77. Mott J.J."Mechanisms controlling dormancy in the arid zone grass Aristida contorta"I. Physiology and mechanisms of dormancy. Aust. J. Bot.1974Vol 22635645
78. Mott J.J., Tynan P.W."Mechanisms controlling dormancy in the arid zone grass Aristida contorta"II. Anatomy of the hull. Aust. J. Bot.1974Vol 22647653
79. Nagy M., Szalai I."Dormancy in fruits of Tilia platyphyllos Scop."I. Acta Biol. (Szeged) N. S.1973Vol 197177(Cited by Maguire, 1976.)
80. Negbi M., Rushkin E., Koller D."Dynamic aspects of water-relations in germination of Hitschfeldia ihcarut seeds."Plant Cell Physiol.1966Vol 7363376
81. Negbi M., Tamari B."Germination of chlorophyllous and achlorophyllous seeds of Salsola volkensil, Aellenia autrani"Isr. J. Bot.1963Vol 12124135
82. Netolitzky K."Anatomie der Angiospermen-Samen. Berlin, Gebrder Bomtraeger."1926
83. Nikolaeva M.G."Physiology of Deep Dormancy in Seeds. Nat. Sci. Found. Washington, D.C."1966
84. Nobbe F."Handbuch der Samenkunde. Berlin. Wiegadt, Hempel u. Parey. (Cited by Barton"18761965.)
85. Ohga I."On the structure of some ancient, but still viable fruits of Indian lotus, with special reference to their prolonged dormancy."Jpn. J. Bot.1926Vol 3120
86. Pammel L.H."The anatomical characters of the seeds of Leguminosae, chiefly the genera of Gray's Manual."Trans. Acad. Sci., St. Louis1899Vol 991274(Cited by Rolston, 1978.)
87. Porsild A.E., Harrington C.R., Mulligan G.A."Lupinus arcticus Wats, grown from seeds of pleistocene age."Science1967Vol 158113114
88. Raleigh G.J."Chemical conditions in maturation, dormancy and germination of seeds of Gymnocladus dioica"Bot. Gaz.1930Vol 89273294
89. Rees B."Longevity of seeds and structure and nature of seed coat."Proc. R. Soc. Victoria (N.S.)1911Vol 23393414
90. Reeves R.G., Vaile C.C."Anatomy and microchemistry of the cotton seed."Bot. Gaz.1932Vol 93259277
91. Roberts E.H."The distribution of oxidation-reduction enzymes and the effects of respiratory inhibitors and oxygen agents on dormancy in rice seed."Physiol. Plant.1964aVol 171429
92. Roberts E.H."A survey of the effects of chemical treatments on dormancy in rice seed."Physiol. Plant.1964bVol 173043
93. Roberts E.H.,"Seed dormancy ttnd oxydation processes"Dormancy and Survival. Woolhose H.W.Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol.Vol 231969449469
94. Rolston M.P"Water impermeable seed dormancy."Bot. Rev.1978Vol 44365396
95. Scott F.M."Internal suberization of plant tissue."Science1948Vol 108654655
96. Scott F.M., Bystrom B.G., Bowler E."Cercidium floridum seed coat, light and electron microscopic studies."Am. J. Bot.1962Vol 49821833
97. Shaw M.F."A microscopical study of the fruit coat of Nelumbo lutea"Am. J. Bot.1929Vol 16259276
98. Speath N."A physiological study of dormancy in Tilia seed. Mem. Agric. Exp. Stn. Cornell Univ. No. 169."1934
99. Speer H.L., Hsiao A.I."Some physical and chemical properties of the lettuce seed endosperm."Can. J. Bot.1976Vol 5415121522
100. Spurn M."Changes in the permeability of the seed coat in connection with the development of suberin adcrustations of the macrosclereids from the seed coat of the pea (Pisum sativum L.)."Flora1964Vol 154547567
101. Spurny M."Structure of the hypodermal zone in the testa of certain leguminous seeds."Mikroskopie1972Vol 282033
102. Spurn M.,"The imbibition process."Seed Ecology Heydecker W.H.ButterworthsLondon1973367389
103. Sripleng A., Smith F.H."Anatomy of the seed of Convolvulus arvensis"Am. J. Bot.1960Vol 47386392
104. von Kamienski-Jancke Stein"Untersuchungen ber Bau, Chemismus und Submikroskopische Struktur der Palisadenschicht von Leguminosensamenshalen."Mikroskopie1957Vol 12357392(Cited by Barton, 1965.)
105. Stier H.L."The effect of certain seed treatments on the germination of recently harvested potato seed."Proc. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci.1937Vol 35601605
106. Taylorson R.B., Hendricks S.B."Overcoming dormancy in seeds with ethanol and other anesthetics."Planta1979Vol 145507510
107. Tran V.N."Effects of microwave energy on the strophiole, seed coat and germination of Acacia seeds."Aust. J. Plant Physiol.1979Vol 6277287
108. Tschirch A."Handbuch der Pharmakognosie. 3 Bde. Leipzing. (Cited by Grubert"1909251974.)
109. Vaughan J.G., Whitehouse J.M."Seed structure and the taxonomy of the Cruciferae."Bot. J. Linn. Soc.1971Vol 64383409
110. Vershaffelt E."Le traitement chimique des graines imbibition tardive."Ree. Trav. Bot. Nel.1912Vol 9401435
111. Villiers T.A.,"Seed dormancy."Seed Biology. Kozlowski T.Academic Press Inc.New York1972Vol 2226227
112. Visser T."After-ripening and germination of apple seeds in relation to the seed coats."Proc. K. Ned. Akad. Wet. Ser.1954Vol 57B: 175. (Cited by Barton, 1965.)
113. Vose P.B."Dormancy of seeds of Phalaris tuberosa"Nature (Lond.)1956Vol 17810061007
114. Wang B.S.P.,"Tree and shrub seed."Advances in Research and Technology of Seeds. Brodhock W.T.Centre for Agricultural Publishing and DocumentationWageningen1975Vol I3443
115. Wareirig P.F.,"Endogenous inhibitors in seed germination and dormancy."Handbuch der Pflnzenphysiologie. Ruhland W.Springer VerlagBerlin1965Vol XV/2909924Bd
116. Wareing P.F., Foda H.A"Growth inhibitors and dormancy in Xanthium seed."Physiol. Plant.1957Vol 10266281
117. Wareing P.F., Van Staden J., Webb D.P.,"Endogenous hormones in the control of seed dormancy."Seed Ecology. Heydecker W.ButterworthsLondon1973145155
118. Watson D.P."Structure of the testa and its relation to germination in the Papilionaceae tribes Trifoliae and Loteae."Ann. Bot. (N.S.)1948Vol 12385409
119. Webb D.P., Wareing P.F."Seed dormancy in Acer pseudoplatanus L.: the role of the covering structures."J. Exp. Bot.1972Vol 23813829
120. Werker E., Fahn A."Seed anatomy of Pancratium species from three different habitats."Bot. Gaz.1975Vol 136396403
121. Werker E., Many T."Heterocarpy and its ontogeny in Aellenia autrani (Post) Zoh."Light- and electron-microscope study. Isr. J. Bot.1974Vol 23132144
122. Werker E., Dafni A., Negbi M."Variability in Prosopis forcata in Israel: anatomical features of the seed."Bot. J. Linn. Soc.1973Vol 66223232
123. Werker E., Marbach I., Mayer A.M."Relation between the anatomy of the testa, water permeability and the presence of phenolics in the genus Pisum"Ann. Bot.1979Vol 43765771
124. White J."The occurrence of an impermeable cuticle on the exterior of certain seeds."Proc. R. Soc. Victoria1908Vol 21203210
125. Williams W.A., Elliott J.R."Ecological significance of seed coat impermeability to moisture in crimson, subterranean and rose clovers in a Mediterranean-type climate."Ecology1960Vol 41733742
126. Winter D.M."The development of the seed of Abutilon theophrasti"II. Seed coat. Am. J. Bot.1960Vol 47157161
127. Witztum A., Gutterman Y., Evenari M."Integumentary mucilage as an oxygen barrier during germination of Blepharis persica (Burm.) Kuntze."Bot. Gaz.1969Vol 130238241
128. Wurzburger J., Leshem Y., Koller D."The role of gibberellin and the hulls in the control of germination in Aegilops kotschyi caryopses."Can. J. Bot.1974Vol 5215971661

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    Israel Journal of Plant Sciences — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation