Cookies Policy
X

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

NITROGENASE AND ASPECTS OF ITS REGULATION IN CYANOBACTERIA

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Israel Journal of Plant Sciences

The ability of various cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) to fix N2 is now well established. The most studied unicellular N2-fixing form is Gloeothece; about half the non-hetero- cystous forms fix N2 anaerobically, and heterocystous forms usually fix N2 aerobically and anaerobically. Cyanobacterial nitrogenase is little different to that of other N2- fixing prokaryotes, and the enzyme is extremely O2 sensitive. This O2 sensitivity can be partially overcome by H2; the reductant source for nitrogenase is fixed carbon from the vetative cells and H2 utilized by an uptake hydrogenase in heterocysts can also support nitrogenase activity. There is evidence that Φψ may be involved in regulation of nitrogenase activity. ATP can be generated by photophosphorylation and respiration in heterocysts, and the primary route of NH+ 4 assimilation is the glutamine synthetase-glutamate synthase pathway. Characteristics of purified glutamine synthetase from heterocystous and non-heterocystous cyanobacteria are presented. Possible interrelations of vegetative cells and heterocysts with respect to N2-fixation are briefly considered.

Affiliations: 1: Department of Biological Sciences, University of Dundee ; 2: Lehrstuhl Physiol. Biochem. Pflanzen, Universität Konstanz

10.1080/0021213X.1982.10676941
/content/journals/10.1080/0021213x.1982.10676941
dcterms_title,pub_keyword,dcterms_description,pub_author
10
5
Loading
Loading

Full text loading...

/content/journals/10.1080/0021213x.1982.10676941
Loading

Data & Media loading...

1. Allen M.B., Arnon D.I."Studies on nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae. I., Growth and nitrogen fixation by Anabaena cylindrica Lemm"Plant Physiol.1955Vol 30366372
2. Apte S.K., Rowell P., Stewart W.D.P."Electron donation to ferredoxin in heterocysts of the N2-fixing alga. Anabaena cylindrica"Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B.1978Vol 200125
3. Ausubel F.M., Janssen K.A., Ow D.W., Riedel G.E., Ruvkun G.B., Cannon F.C., Cannon M.C.,"The use of recombinant DNA techniques in the study of nitrogen-fixing genes"Nitrogen Fixation. Stewart W.D.P., Gallon J.R.Academic PressLondon1980395421
4. Belkin S., Padan E."Hydrogen metabolism in the facultative anoxygenic cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) Oscillatoria limnetica, Aphanothece halophytica"Arch. Microbiol.1978Vol 116109111
5. Bothe H."Photosynthetische Stickstofflxierung mit einem zellfreien Extrakt aus der Blaualge Anabaena cylindrica"Ber. Dtsch. Bot. Ges.1970Vol 83421432
6. Bothe H., Distler E., Eisbrenner G."Hydrogen metabolism in blue-green algae."Biochimie1978Vol 60277289
7. Bothe H., Neuer G., Kalbe I., Eisbrenner G.,"Electron donors and hydrogenase in nitrogen-fixing microorganisms"Nitrogen Fixation Stewart W.D.P., Gallon J.R.Academic PressLondon198083112
8. Bottomley P.J., Stewart W.D.P."ATP and nitrogenase activity in nitrogen-fixing heterocystous blue-green algae."New Phytol.1977Vol 79625638
9. Bottomley P.J., Van Baalen C."Dark hexose metabolism by photoautotrophically and heterotrophically grown cells of the blue-green alga (cyanobacterium) Nostoc sp. strain Mac"J. Bacteriol.1978aVol 135888894
10. Bottomley P.J., Van Baaien C."Characteristics of heterotrophic growth in the bluegreen alga Nostoc sp. strain Mac"J. Gen. Microbiol.1978bVol 107309318
11. Bunt J.S., Cooksey K.E., Heeb M.A., Lee C.C., Taylor B.F."Assay of algal nitrogen fixation in the marine subtropics by acetylene reduction."Nature1970Vol 22711631164
12. Cardemil L., Wolk C.P."Isolated heterocysts of Anabaena variabilis synthesise envelope polysaccharide."Biochim. Biophys. Acta1981Vol 674265276
13. Carithers R.P., Yoch D.C., Arnon D.I."Two forms of nitrogenase from the photo-synthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum"J. Bacteriol.1979Vol 137779780
14. Carpenter E.J., Price C.C."Marine Oscillatoria (Trichodesmium): explanation for aerobic nitrogen fixation without heterocysts."Science1976Vol 19112781280
15. Cohen Y., Padan E., Shilo M."Facultative anoxygenic photosynthesis in the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limnetica"J. Bacteriol.1975aVol 123855861
16. Cohen Y., Jrgenson B.B., Padan E., Shilo M."Sulphide dependent anoxygenic photosynthesis in the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limnetica"Nature1975bVol 257489492
17. Davis L.C., Kotake S."Regulation of nitrogenase activity in aerobes by Mg2 availability: an hypothesis."Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.1980Vol 93934940
18. Dharmawardene M.W.N., Haystead A., Stewart W.D.P."Glutamine synthetase of the nitrogen-fixing alga Anabaena cylindrica"Arch. Mikrobiol.1973Vol 90281295
19. Doolittle W.F."The cyanobacterial genome, its expression and the control of that expression."Adv. Microb. Physiol.1979Vol 201102
20. Dugdale R.C., Menzel D.W., Ryther J.H."Nitrogen fixation in the Sargasso Sea."Deep-Sea Res.1961Vol 7298300
21. Eady R.R., Imam S., Lowe D.J., Miller R.W., Smith B.E., Thorneley R.N.F.,"The molecular enzymology of nitrogenase"Nitrogen Fixation. Stewart W.D.P., Gallon J.R.Academic PressLondon19801935
22. Eisbrenner G., Roos P., Bothe H."The number of hydrogenases in cyanobacteria."J. Gen. Microbiol.1981Vol 125383390
23. Fisher R., Tuli R., Haselkorn R."A cloned cyanobacterial gene for glutamine synthetase functions in Escherichia coli, but the enzyme is not adenylylated."Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA1981Vol 7833933397
24. Gallon J.R.,"Nitrogen-fixing photoautotrophs"Nitrogen Fixation. Stewart W.D.P., Gallon J.R.Academic PressLondon1980197238
25. Gallon J.R., Mullineaux P.M., Chaplin A.E.,"Protection of Gloeocapsa nitrogenase from oxygen, studies in the light and the dark."Current Perspectives in Nitrogen Fixation. Australian Academy of Sciences, Canberra, p. 449. Gibson A.H., Newton W.E.1981
26. Giddings T.H., Wolk C.P., Shomer-Ilan A."Metabolism of sulfur compounds by whole filaments and heterocysts of Anabaena variabilis"J. Bacteriol.1981Vol 14610671074
27. Glagoleva T.N., Glagoleva A.N., Gusev M.V., Nikitana K.A."Proton motive force supports gliding in cyanobacteria."FEBS Lett.1980Vol 1174953
28. Gorham P.R., McLachlan J.S., Hammer U.T., Kim W.K."Isolation and culture of toxic strains of Anabaena flos-aquae (Lyngb.) de Breb."Verh.-Int. Ver. Theor. Angew. Limnol.1964Vol 15796804
29. Guerrero M.G., Ramos J.L., Losada M."Photosynthetic production of ammonia."Experientia1982Vol 385358
30. Haaker H., Laane C., Veeger C.,"Dinitrogen fixation and the proton-motive force"Nitrogen Fixation. Stewart W.D.P., Gallon J.R.Academic PressLondon1980113138
31. Hder D-P."Electrical and proton gradients in the sensory transduction of photophobic responses in the blue-green alga, Phormidium uncinatimi"Arch. Microbiol.1981Vol 1308386
32. Hallenbeck P.C., Kostel P.J., Benemann J.R."Purification and properties of nitrogenase from the cyanobacterium, Anabaena cylindrica"Eur. J. Biochem.1979Vol 98275284
33. Hamadi A.F., Gallon J.R."Calcium ions, oxygen and acetylene reduction (nitrogen fixation) in the unicellular cyanobacterium Gloeocapsa sp."1430/3. J. Gen. Microbiol.1981Vol 125391398
34. Haselkorn R."Heterocysts."Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol.1978Vol 29319344
35. Hawkesford M.J., Reed R.H., Rowell P., Stewart W.D.P."Nitrogenase activity and membrane electrogenesis in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis Kiitz."Eur. J. Biochem.1981Vol 115519523
36. Hawkesford M.J., Reed R.H., Rowell P., Stewart W.D.P.1982Nitrogenase activity and membrane electrogenesis in the cyanobacterium Plectonema boryanum (in preparation)
37. Hubbard J.S., Stadtman E.R."Regulation of glutamine synthetase."II. Patterns of feedback inhibition in microorganisms. J. Bacteriol.1967Vol 9310451054
38. Kleinschmidt J., Kleiner D."The glutamine synthetase from Azotobacter vinelandii., purification, characterization, regulation and localization."Eur. J. Biochem.1978Vol 895160
39. Kustu S., Burton D., Garcia E., McCarter L., McFarland N."Nitrogen control in Salmonella.. regulation by the glnR, g1nF gene products"Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA1979Vol 7645764580
40. Ladha J.K., Rowell P., Stewart W.D.P."Effects of 5-hydroxylysine on acetylene reduction and NH4-assimilation in the cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica"Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.1978Vol 83688696
41. Lea P.J., Miflin B.J."Glutamate synthase in blue-green algae."Biochem. Soc. Trans.1975Vol 3381384
42. Lex M., Carr N.G."The metabolism of glucose by heterocysts and vegetative cells of Anabaena cylindrica"Arch. Microbiol.1974Vol 101161167
43. Lex M., Stewart W.D.P."Algal nitrogenase, reductant pools and photosystem I activity."Biochim. Biophys. Acta1973Vol 292436443
44. Ley S.H., Wang Y., He J.,"Agents protecting nitrogenase from oxygen in blue-green algae"Current Perspectives in Nitrogen Fixation. Australian Academy of Science, Canberra Gibson A.H., Newton W.E.1981451
45. Lockau W., Peterson R.B., Wolk C.P., Burris R.H."Modes of reduction of nitrogenase in heterocysts isolated from Anabaena species."Biochem. Biophys. Acta1978Vol 502298308
46. Lockau W."Evidence for a dual role of cytochrome c-553 and plastocyanin in photosynthesis and respiration of the cyanobacterium, Anabaena variabilis"Arch. Microbiol.1982Vol 128336340
47. Ludden P.W., Burris R.H."Activating factor for the bon protein of nitrogenase from Rhodospirillum rubrum"Science1976Vol 194424426
48. Ludden P.W., Burris R.H."Purification and properties of nitrogenase from Rhodospirillum rubrum and evidence for phosphate, ribose and an adenine-like unit covalently bound to the iron protein."Biochem. J.1978Vol 175251259
49. Mackinney G."Absorption of light by chlorophyll solutions."J. Biol. Chem.1941Vol 140315322
50. Mazur B.J., Rice D., Haselkorn R."Identification of blue-green algal nitrogen fixing genes by using heterologous DNA hybridization probes."Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA1980Vol 77186190
51. Metzler H."The influence of organic substrates and inhibitors on the induction of a respiratory oscillation in the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans"Arch. Microbiol.1981Vol 129123126
52. Nordlund S., Eriksson U."Nitrogenase from Rhodospirillum rubrum"Relation between switch off' effect and the membrane component, hydrogen production and acetylene reduction with different nitrogenase component ratios. Biochim. Biophys. Acta1979Vol 547429437
53. Nordlund S., Eriksson U., Baltscheffsky H."Necessity of a membrane component for nitrogenase activity in Rhodospirillum rubrum"Biochim. Biophys. Acta1977Vol 462187195
54. Nordlund S., Eriksson U., Baltscheffsky H."Properties of the nitrogenase system from a photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodospirillum rubrum"Biochim. Biophys. Acta1978Vol 504248254
55. Oren A., Shilo M."Anaerobic heterotrophic dark metabolism in the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limnetica: sulphur respiration and lactate metabolism."Arch. Microbiol.1979Vol 1227784
56. Ownby J.D."Effects of amino acids on methionine-sulphoximine-induced heterocyst formation in Anabaena"Planta1977Vol 136277279
57. Padan E., Schuldiner J."Energy transduction in the photosynthetic membranes of the cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) Flectonema boryanum"J. Biol. Chem.1978Vol 25332813286
58. Pahel G., Tyler B."A new gln A-linked regulatory gene for glutamine synthetase in Escherichia coli"Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA1979Vol 7645444548
59. Pearson H.W., Howsley R., Kjeldsen C.K., Walsby A.E."Aerobic nitrogenase activity associated with a non-heterocystous filamentous cyanobacterium."FEMS Microbiol. Lett.1979Vol 5163167
60. Peterson R.B., Burris R.H."H2 metabolism in isolated heterocysts of Anabaena 7120."Arch. Microbiol.1978Vol 116125132
61. Peterson R.B., Shaw E.R., Dolan E., Ke B."A photochemically active heterocyst preparation from Anabaena variabilis"Photochem. Photobiol.1981aVol 27984
62. Peterson R.B., Dolan E., Calvert H.E., Ke B."Energy transfer from phycobiliproteins to photosystem I in vegetative cells and heterocysts of Anabaena variabilis"Biochim. Biophys. Acta1981bVol 634237248
63. Rai A.N., Rowell P., Stewart W.D.P."NH4 assimilation and nitrogenase regulation in the lichen Peltigera aphthosa Willd."New Phytol.1980Vol 85545555
64. Rai A.N., Rowell P., Stewart W.D.P."Nitrogenase activity and dark CO2 fixation in the lichen Peltigera aphthosa Willd."Planta1981Vol 151256264
65. Reed R.H., Rowell P., Stewart W.D.P."Characterization of the transport of potassium ions in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis Ktz."Eur. J. Biochem.1981Vol 116323330
66. Reynaud P."Purification de l'enzyme nitrogenase d 'Anabaena sp."Cah. ORSTOM, Ser. Biol.1977Vol 12109116
67. Rippka R., Deruelles J., Waterbury J.B., Herdman M., Stanier R.Y."Generic assignments, strain histories and properties of pure cultures of cyanobacteria."J. Gen. Microbiol.1979Vol 111161
68. Robson R.L., Postgate J.R."Oxygen and hydrogen in biological nitrogen fixation."Ann. Rev. Microbiol.1980Vol 34183207
69. Rowell P., Sampaio M.J.A.M., Ladha J.K., Stewart W.D.P."Alteration of cyanobacterial glutamine synthetase activity in vivo in response to light and NHJ."Arch. Microbiol.1979Vol 120195200
70. Rowell P., Diez J., Apte S.K., Stewart W.D.P."Molecular heterogeneity of ferredoxin: NADP oxidoreductase from the cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica"Biochim. Biophys. Acta1981Vol 657507516
71. Sampaio M.J.A.M., Rowell P., Stewart W.D.P."Purification and some properties of glutamine synthetase from the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria Anabaena cylindrica and a Nostoc sp."J. Gen. Microbiol.1979Vol 111181191
72. Shah V.K., Brill W.J."Isolation of an iron-molybdenum cofactor from nitrogenase."Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA1977Vol 7432493253
73. Skulachev V.P."Integrating functions of biomembranes."Problems of lateral transport of energy, metabolites and electrons. Biochim. Biophys. Acta1980Vol 604297320
74. Stacey G., Tabita F.R., Van Baalen C."Nitrogen and ammonia assimilation in the cyanobacteria: purification of glutamine synthetase from Anabaena sp. strain CA"J. Bacteriol.1977Vol 132596603
75. Stacey G., Bottomley P.J., Van Baalen C., Tabita F.R."Control of heterocyst and nitrogenase synthesis in cyanobacteria."J. Bacteriol.1979Vol 137321326
76. Stanier R.Y., Cohen-Bazire G."Phototrophic prokaryotes: the cyanobacteria."Annu. Rev. Microbiol.1977Vol 31225274
77. Stewart W.D.P."Some aspects of structure and function in nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria."Annu. Rev. Microbiol.1980Vol 34497536
78. Stewart W.D.P., Bottomley P.J.,"Nitrogenase of blue-green algae"Proc. 1st Internat. Symp. Nitrogen Fixation. Newton W.E., Nyman C.J.1976Vol 1257273Washington State University Press, Washington
79. Stewart W.D.P., Lex M."Nitrogenase activity in the blue-green alga Plectonema boryanum strain 594."Arch. Mikrobiol.1970Vol 73250260
80. Stewart W.D.P., Pearson H.W."Effects of aerobic and anaerobic conditions on growth and metabolism of blue-green algae."Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B.1970Vol 175293311
81. Stewart W.D.P., Rowell P."Effects of L-methionine-DL-sulphoximine on the assimilation of newly fixed NH3, acetylene reduction and heterocyst production in Anabaena cylindrica"Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.1975Vol 65846856
82. Stewart W.D.P., Fitzgerald G.P., Burris R.H."In situ studies of N2 fixation using the acetylene reduction technique."Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA1967Vol 5820712078
83. Stewart W.D.P., Rowell P., Rai A.N.,"Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria"Nitrogen Fixation. Stewart W.D.P., Gallon J.R.Academic PressLondon1980239277
84. Streicher S.L., Shanmugam K.T., Ausubel F., Morandi C., Goldberg R.B."Regulation of nitrogen fixation in Klebsiella pneumoniae: evidence for a role of glutamine synthetase as a regulator of nitrogenase synthesis."J. Bacteriol.1974Vol 120815821
85. Tel-Or E., Stewart W.D.P."Photosynthetic components and activities of nitrogen-fixing isolated heterocysts of Anabaena cylindrica"Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B.1977Vol 1986186
86. Thomas J., Meeks J.C., Wolk C.P., Shaffer P.W., Austin S.M., Chien W-S."Formation of glutamine from [13N] ammonia, [13N] dinitrogen and [14C] glutamate by heterocysts isolated from Anabaena cylindrica"J. Bacteriol.1977Vol 12915451555
87. Tsai L.B., Mortenson L.E."Interaction of the nitrogenase components of Anabaena cylindrica with those of Clostridium pasteurianum"Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.1978Vol 81280287
88. Watanabe A., Yamamoto Y."Heterotrophic nitrogen fixation by the blue-green alga Anabaenopsis circularis"Nature1967Vol 214738
89. Weare N.M., Benemann J.R."Nitrogenase activity and photosynthesis in Plectonema boryanum"J. Bacteriol.1974Vol 119258265
90. Wedler F.C., Horn B.R."Catalytic mechanisms of glutamine synthetase enzymes."Studies with analogues of possible intermediates and transition states. J. Biol. Chem.1976Vol 25175307538
91. Winkenbach F., Wolk C.P."Activities of enzymes of the oxidative and reductive pentose phosphate pathways in heterocysts of a blue-green alga."Plant Physiol.1973Vol 52480483
92. Wolk C.P.,"Developmental biology of cyanobacteria: advances and challenges"Proc. 3rd. Int. Symp. Photos. Prokaryotes. Abstract D-1. Nichols J.M.1979
http://brill.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1080/0021213x.1982.10676941
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1080/0021213x.1982.10676941
1982-05-13
2018-09-20

Sign-in

Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
     
    Israel Journal of Plant Sciences — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation