Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here


No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Israel Journal of Plant Sciences

Basic concepts of color vision in animals and, in particular in the honeybee, are reviewed. Four models of color discrimination in honeybees are presented. Because visual systems in Hymenoptera are similar to that of the honeybee, such models can also be used to describe color discrimination in many hymenopteran pollinators. We compare predictive capacities of the models and give practical recommendations for their usage. Although models have different mathematical formulations, in most cases they give similar predictions. Examples where predictions of different models deviate are discussed.

Affiliations: 1: Institut für Neurobiologie, Freie Universität Berlin


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. Autrum H., Zwehl V"Die spektrale Empfindlichkeit einzelner Sehzellen des Bienenauges."Z. Vgl. Physiol.1964Vol 48357384von
2. Backhaus W."Color opponent coding in the visual system of the honeybee."Vision Res.1991Vol 3113811397
3. Backhaus W."Colour vision in honeybees."Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev.1992aVol 16112
4. Backhaus W."The Bezold-Brcke effect in the color vision system of the honeybee."Vision Res.1992bVol 3214251431
5. Backhaus W."Color vision and color choice behavior of the honey bee."Apidologie1993Vol 24309331
6. Backhaus W., Menzel R., Kreissl S."Multidimensional scaling of color similarity in bees."Biol. Cybern.1987Vol 56293304
7. Brandt R., Vorobyev M."Metric analysis of increment threshold spectral sensitivity in the honeybee."Vision Res.1997Vol 37425439
8. Chittka L."The colour hexagon: a chromaticity diagram based on photoreceptor excitations as a generalized representation of colour opponency."J. Comp. Physiol. A1992Vol 170533543
9. Chittka L., Menzel R."The evolutionary adaptation of flower colors and the insect pollinators' color vision systems."J. Comp. Physiol. A1992Vol 171171181
10. Chittka L., Waser N.M."Why red flowers are not invisible to bees."Isr. J. Plant Sci.1997Vol 45169183, this issue
11. Chittka L., Beier W., Hertel H., Steinmann E., Menzel R."Opponent colour coding is a universal strategy to evaluate the photoreceptor inputs in hymenoptera."J. Comp. Physiol. A1992Vol 170545563
12. Chittka L., Shmida A., Troje N., Menzel R."Ultraviolet as a component of flower reflections, and the colour perception of Hymenoptera."Vision Res.1994Vol 3414891508
13. Darwin C."Cross and self fertilization in the vegetable kingdom."MurrayLondon1876
14. Daumer K."Reizmetrische Untersuchung des Farbensehens der Bienen."Z. Vgl. Physiol.1956Vol 38413478
15. Faegri K., van der Pijl L."The principles of pollination ecology., "3rd ed.Pergamon PressOxford1978
16. Giurfa M., Vorobyev M."The detection and recognition of color stimuli by honeybees: Performance and mechanisms."Isr. J. Plant Sci.1997Vol 45129140, this issue
17. Giurfa M., Vorobyev M., Kevan P., Menzel R."Detection of coloured stimuli by honeybees: minimum visual angles and receptor specific contrasts."J. Comp. Physiol. A1996Vol 178699709
18. Giurfa M., Vorobyev M., Brandt R., Posner B., Menzel R."Discrimination of coloured stimuli by honeybees: alternative use of achromatic and chromatic signals."J. Comp. Physiol. A1997Vol 180235243
19. Govardovskii V.I., Vorobyev M."The role of colored oil drops of cones in the color vision."Sens. Syst.1989Vol 3150159
20. Goldsmith T.H.,"The evolution of visual pigments and colour vision"The perception of colour. Gouras P.MacmillanLondon19916289
21. Gribakin F.G."Cellular basis of colour vision in the honey bee."Nature1969Vol 223639642
22. von Helmholtz H."Handbuch der physiologischen Optik., "2nd ed.1896Hamburg, Voss
23. von Heiversen O."Zur spektralen Unterschieds-empfindlichkeit der Honigbiene."J. Comp. Physiol.1972Vol 80439472
24. Horridge G.A.,"Evolution of visual processing"Evolution of the visual system. Cronly-Dillon J.R., Gregory R.L.MacmillanLondon1991229270
25. Kevan P.G., Baker H.G."Insects as flower pollinators."Annu. Rev. Entomol.1983Vol 28407453
26. Kevan P., Giurfa M., Chittka L."Why are there so many and so few white flowers?"Trends Plant Sci.1996Vol 1280284
27. Khn A."Versuche ber das Unterscheidungsvermgen der Bienen und Fische fr Spektrallichter."Nachrichten der Akademie der Wissenschaften, Gttingen. Mathematisch-Physikalische Klasse1924Vol 16671
28. Lehrer M."Spatial vision in the honeybee: the use of different cues in different tasks."Vision Res.1994Vol 3423632385
29. Lehrer M."Honeybee's use of spatial parameters for flower discrimination Isr."J. Plant Sci.1997Vol 45157167, this issue
30. Menzel R."Electrophysiological evidence for different color receptors in one ommatidium of the bee eye."Z. Naturforsch., C1975Vol 30692694
31. Menzel R.,"Spectral sensitivity and color vision in invertebrates"Handbook of sensory physiology. Autrum H.BerlinSpringer1979503580VII/6A: Invertebrate photoreceptors
32. Menzel R., Backhaus W.,"Colour vision in insects"Vision and visual dysfunction. The perception of colour. Gouras P.MacmillanLondon1991262288
33. Menzel R., Blakers M."Colour receptors in the bee eyemorphology and spectral sensitivity."J. Comp. Physiol.1976Vol 1081133
34. Menzel R., Shmida A."The ecology of flower colours and the natural colour vision of insect pollinators: The Israeli flora as a study case."Biol. Rev.1993Vol 6881120
35. Neumeyer C."On spectral sensitivity in the goldfish; evidence for neural interactions between different cone mechanisms."Vision Res.1984Vol 2412231231
36. Neumeyer C."Wavelength discrimination in the goldfish."J. Comp. Physiol. A1986Vol 158203213
37. Osorio D., Vorobyev M."Colour vision as an adaptation to frugivory in primates."Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B1996Vol 263593599
38. Peitsch D."Contrast responses, signal to noise ratios and spectral sensitivities in photoreceptor cells of hymenopterans. Ph.D. thesis, Free University, Berlin."1992
39. Peitsch D., Fietz A., Hertel H., de Souza J., Ventura D.F., Menzel R."The spectral input systems of hymenopteran insects and their receptor-based colour vision."J. Comp. Physiol. A1992Vol 1702340
40. Schaerer S., Neumeyer C."Motion detection in goldfish investigated with the optomotoric response is color blind"Vision Res.1997in press
41. Schrdinger E."Grundlinien einer Theorie der Farbenmetrik im Tagessehen."Ann. Phys.1920Vol 63397520
42. Sprengel C.K."Das entdeckte Geheimnis der Natur im Bau und in der Befruchtung der Blumen. Berlin, Vieweg."1793
43. Troje N."Spectral categories in the learning behaviour of blowflies."Z. Naturforsch., C1993Vol 4896104
44. Vorobyev M., Brandt R."Does photoreceptor noise limit the accuracy of color discrimination in honeybees?"Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol.1996Vol 65Suppl. 1182
45. Wyszecki G., Stiles W.S."Color scienceconcepts and methods, quantitative data and formulae., "2nd ed.WileyNew York1982

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    Israel Journal of Plant Sciences — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation