Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Conservation meets restoration – rescuing threatened plant species by restoring their environments and restoring environments using threatened plant species

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Israel Journal of Plant Sciences

Plant conservation biology needs a new approach to cope with the rapid disappearance of species and ecosystems. This paper is an attempt to introduce such an approach via conceptual integration of conservation biology and restoration ecology in what can be called conservation-oriented restoration. Use of this term is limited to cases when restoration is applied to a still-functioning ecosystem, excluding cases when the destroyed ecosystem must be recreated or altered to a desirable state. The paper demonstrates the importance of habitat restoration for the majority of threatened species, and, although it may seem paradoxical, advocates usefulness of threatened plant species for restoration of natural habitats. It is proposed that threatened plant species should become an important part of many restoration projects and be introduced not only into locations where they currently grow or grew in the recent past, but also into suitable locations within their potential distribution range. Because the number of potentially suitable locations can be close to zero if we consider only untouched natural habitats as suitable, the introduction sites should include those that require restoration efforts. The available literature is reviewed to show why and how ecological restoration should become an integral part of the conservation biologist's armory.

Affiliations: 1: Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. Albrecht MA,, McCue KA. 2010. "Changes in demographic processes over long time scales reveal the challenge of restoring an endangered plant". Rest Ecol. Vol 18:235243.
2. Alvarez-Aquino C,, Williams-Linera G. 2012. "Seedling survival and growth of tree species: site conditions and seasonality in tropical dry forest restoration". Bot Sci. Vol 90:341351.
3. Alvarez-Aquino C,, Williams-Linera G,, Newton AC. 2004. "Experimental native tree seedling establishment for the restoration of a Mexican cloud forest". Restor Ecol. Vol 12:412418. [Crossref]
4. Aronson J,, Brancalion PHS,, Durigan G,, Rodrigues RR,, Enge VL,, Tabarelli M,, Torezan JMD,, Gandolfi S,, de Melo ACG,, Kageyama PY, et al. 2011. "What role should government regulation play in ecological restoration? Ongoing debate in Sao Paulo state, Brazil". Restor Ecol. Vol 19:690695. [Crossref]
5. Aronson J,, Floret C,, Le Floc'h E,, Ovalle C,, Pontanier R. 1993. "Restoration and rehabilitation of degraded ecosystems in arid and semi-arid lands. I. A view from the south". Restor Ecol. Vol 1:817. [Crossref]
6. Arroyo-Rodríguez V,, Pineda E,, Escobar F,, Benítez-Malvido J. 2009. "Value of small patches in the conservation of plant-species diversity in highly fragmented rainforest". Conserv Biol. Vol 23:729739. [Crossref]
7. Avendaño-Yáñez ML,, Sánchez-Velásquez LR,, Meave JA,, Pineda-López MR. 2016. "Can Pinus plantations facilitate reintroduction of endangered cloud forest species?" Lands Ecol Eng. Vol 12:99104. [Crossref]
8. Balaguer L,, Escudero A,, Martín-Duque JF,, Mola I,, Aronson J. 2014. "The historical reference in restoration ecology: re-defining a cornerstone concept". Biol Conserv. Vol 176:1220. [Crossref]
9. Baumberger T,, Croze T,, Affre L,, Mesleard F. 2012. "Co-occurring species indicate habitats of the rare Limonium girardianum". Plant Ecol Evol. Vol 145:3137. [Crossref]
10. Beisner BE,, Haydon DT,, Cuddington K. 2003. "Alternative stable states in ecology". Front Ecol Environ. Vol 1:376382. [Crossref]
11. Belnap J,, Ludwig JA,, Wilcox BP,, Betancourt JL,, Dean WRJ,, Hoffmann BD,, Milton SJ. 2012. "Introduced and invasive species in novel rangeland ecosystems: friends or foes?" Rangeland Ecol Manag. Vol 65:569578. [Crossref]
12. Benayas JMR,, Bullock JM,, Newton AC. 2008. "Creating woodland islets to reconcile ecological restoration, conservation, and agricultural land use". Front Ecol Environ. Vol 6:329336. [Crossref]
13. Bontrager M,, Webster KL,, Elvin M,, Parker IM. 2014. "The effects of habitat and competitive/facilitative interactions on reintroduction success of the endangered wetland herb, Arenaria paludicola". Plant Ecol. Vol 215:467478. [Crossref]
14. Bruelheide H,, Boehnke M,, Both S,, Fang T,, Assmann T,, Baruffol M,, Bauhus J,, Buscot F,, Chen X-Y,, Ding B-Y, et al. 2011. "Community assembly during secondary forest succession in a Chinese subtropical forest". Ecol Monogr. Vol 81:2541. [Crossref]
15. Butterfield RP. 1996. "Early species selection for tropical reforestation: A consideration of stability". Forest Ecol Manag. Vol 81:161168. [Crossref]
16. Calvo-Alvarado JC,, Arias D,, Richter DD. 2007. "Early growth performance of native and introduced fast growing tree species in wet to sub-humid climates of the Southern region of Costa Rica". Forest Ecol Manag. Vol 242:227235. [Crossref]
17. Castellanos-Castro C,, Bonfil C. 2013. "Propagation of three Bursera species from cuttings". Bot Sci. Vol 91:217224.
18. Castro J,, Gómez JM,, García D,, Zamora R,, Hódar JA. 1999. "Seed predation and dispersal in relict Scots pine forests in southern Spain". Plant Ecol. Vol 145:115123. [Crossref]
19. Charron L,, Hermanutz L. 2016. "Prioritizing boreal forest restoration sites based on disturbance regime". Forest Ecol Manag. Vol 361:9098. [Crossref]
20. Chase JM. 2003. "Community assembly: when should history matter?" Oecologia. Vol 136:489498. [Crossref]
21. Chase JM,, Leibold MA. 2003. Ecological niches: linking classical and contemporary approaches. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
22. Chazdon RL. 2008. "Beyond deforestation: restoring forests and ecosystem services on degraded lands". Science. Vol 320:14581460. [Crossref]
23. Chien PD,, Zuidema PA,, Nghia NH. 2008. "Conservation prospects for threatened Vietnamese tree species: results from a demographic study". Popul Ecol. Vol 50:227237. [Crossref]
24. Clewell A,, Aronson J,, Winterhalder K. 2004. "The SER international primer on ecological restoration". Ecol Restor. Vol 2:206207.
25. Condit R,, Sukumar R,, Hubbell SP,, Foster RB. 1998. "Predicting population trends from size distributions: a direct test in a tropical tree community". Am Nat. Vol 152:495509. [Crossref]
26. Corbin JD,, Holl KD. 2012. "Applied nucleation as a forest restoration strategy". Forest Ecol Manag. Vol 265:3746. [Crossref]
27. Cordell S,, McClellan M,, Yarber Carter Y,, Hadway LJ. 2008. "Towards restoration of Hawaiian tropical dry forests: the Kaupulehu outplanting programme". Pac Conserv Biol. Vol 14:279284. [Crossref]
28. Dalrymple SE,, Banks E,, Stewart GB,, Pullin AS,. 2012. "A meta-analysis of threatened plant reintroductions from across the globe". In: Dalrymple SE,, Banks E,, Stewart GB,, Pullin AS, editors. Plant reintroduction in a changing climate: promises and perils. Washington (DC): Island Press; p. 3150.
29. Danthu P,, Ramaroson N,, Rambeloarisoa G. 2008. "Seasonal dependence of rooting success in cuttings from natural forest trees in Madagascar". Agroforest Syst. Vol 73:4753. [Crossref]
30. DeWalt SJ,, Maliakal SK,, Denslow JS. 2003. "Changes in vegetation structure and composition along a tropical forest chronosequence: implications for wildlife". Forest Ecol Manag. Vol 182:139151. [Crossref]
31. De Zoysa ND,, Gunatilleke CVS,, Gunatilleke IAUN,. 1991. "Comparative phytosociology of natural and modified rain forest sites in Sinharaja, MAB Reserve, Sri Lanka". In: De Zoysa ND,, Gunatilleke CVS,, Gunatilleke IAUN, editors. Rain forest regeneration and management. Paris: UNESCO/Parthenon Press; p. 154168.
32. Diamond JM. 1972. Biogeographic kinetics: estimation of relaxation times for avifaunas of Southwest Pacific Islands. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 69:3199–3203.
33. Dobson AP,, Bradshaw AD,, Baker AJM. 1997. "Hopes for the future: restoration ecology and conservation biology". Science. Vol 277:515522. [Crossref]
34. Drayton B,, Primack RB. 2012. "Success rates for reintroductions of eight perennial plant species after 15 years". Restor Ecol. Vol 20:299303. [Crossref]
35. Dudley N, editor. 2008. Guidelines for applying protected area management categories. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.
36. Edwards DP,, Laurance WF. 2013. "Biodiversity despite selective logging". Science. Vol 339:646647.
37. Ehrenfeld JG. 2000. "Defining the limits of restoration: the need for realistic goals". Restor Ecol. Vol 8:29. [Crossref]
38. Encino-Ruiz L,, Lindig-Cisneros R,, Gómez-Romero M,, Blanco-García A. 2013. "Performance of three tropical forest tree species in a test deciduous ecological restoration". Bot Sci. Vol 91:107114. [Crossref]
39. Falk DA,, Millar CI,, Olwell M, editors. 1996. Restoring diversity: strategies for reintroduction of endangered plants. Washington (DC): Island Press.
40. Feeley KJ,, Davies SJ,, Noor MNS,, Kassim AR,, Tan S. 2007. "Do current stem size distributions predict future population changes? An empirical test of intraspecific patterns in tropical trees at two spatial scales". J Trop Ecol. Vol 23:191198. [Crossref]
41. Fiedler PL,, Laven RD,. 1996. "Selecting reintroduction sites". In: Fiedler PL,, Laven RD, editors. Restoring diversity: strategies for reintroduction of endangered plants. Washington (DC): Island Press; p. 157170.
42. Franks AJ,, Yates CJ,, Hobbs RJ. 2009. "Defining plant functional groups to guide rare plant management". Plant Ecol. Vol 204:207216. [Crossref]
43. Fu Y,, Chen S,, Wu T,, Hao J,, Sima Y. 2009. "Comparison of seed modality and germination charateristics of compare of Manglietia hookeri and endangered M. grandis". J Northwest Forest Coll. Vol 24:3337.
44. Gao Z,, Zhang C,, Milne RI. 2010. "Size-class structure and variation in seed and seedling traits in relation to population size of an endangered species Craigia yunnanensis (Tiliaceae)". Aust J Bot. Vol 58:214223. [Crossref]
45. García D,, Zamora R,, Hódar JA,, Gómez JM,, Castro J. 2000. "Yew (Taxus baccata L.) regeneration is facilitated by fleshy-fruited shrubs in Mediterranean environments". Biol Conserv. Vol 95:3138. [Crossref]
46. Garcia LC,, Cianciaruso MV,, Ribeiro DB,, Mäes dos Santos FA,, Rodrigues RR. 2015. "Flower functional trait responses to restoration time". Appl Veg Sci. Vol 18:402412. [Crossref]
47. Garcia LC,, Hobbs RJ,, Mäes dos Santos FA,, Rodrigues RR. 2014. "Flower and fruit availability along a forest restoration gradient". Biotropica. Vol 46:114123. [Crossref]
48. Gardner TA,, Barlow J,, Sodhi NS,, Peres CA. 2010. "A multi-region assessment of tropical forest biodiversity in a human-modified world". Biol Conserv. Vol 143:22932300. [Crossref]
49. Garrido JL,, Rey PJ,, Herrera CM. 2007. "Regional and local variation in seedling emergence, mortality and recruitment of a perennial herb in Mediterranean mountain habitats". Plant Ecol. Vol 190:109121. [Crossref]
50. Gibson L,, Lee TM,, Koh LP,, Brook BW,, Gardner TA,, Barlow J,, Peres CA,, Bradshaw CJA,, Laurance WF,, Lovejoy TE, et al. 2011. "Primary forests are irreplaceable for sustaining tropical biodiversity". Nature. Vol 478:378383. [Crossref]
51. Gitay H,, Noble IR,. 1997. "What are functional types and how should we seek them?" In: Gitay H,, Noble IR, editors. Plant functional types. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press; p. 319.
52. Godefroid S,, Piazza C,, Rossi G,, Buord S,, Stevens A-D,, Aguraiuja R,, Cowell C,, Weekley CW,, Vogg G,, Iriondo JM, et al. 2011. "How successful are plant species reintroductions?" Biol Conserv. Vol 144:672682. [Crossref]
53. Gómez-Aparicio L,, Gómez JM,, Zamora R. 2005a. "Microhabitats shift rank in suitability for seedling establishment depending on habitat type and climate". J Ecol. Vol 93:11941202. [Crossref]
54. Gómez-Aparicio L,, Zamora R,, Gómez JM. 2005b. "The regeneration status of the endangered Acer opalus subsp. granatense throughout its geographical distribution in the Iberian Peninsula". Biol Conserv. Vol 121:195206. [Crossref]
55. Groffman P,, Baron J,, Blett T,, Gold A,, Goodman I,, Gunderson L,, Levinson B,, Palmer M,, Paerl H,, Peterson G, et al. 2006. "Ecological thresholds: the key to successful environmental management or an important concept with no practical application?" Ecosystems. Vol 9:113. [Crossref]
56. Guariguata MR,, Ostertag R. 2001. "Neotropical secondary forest succession: changes in structural and functional characteristics". Forest Ecol Manag. Vol 148:185206. [Crossref]
57. Guarino ESG,, Scariot AO. 2012. "Tree seedling survival and growth in logged and undisturbed seasonal deciduous forest fragments in central Brazil". J Forest Res. Vol 17:193201. [Crossref]
58. Guerrant EOJ., 1996. "Designing populations: demographic, genetic and horticultural dimensions". In: Guerrant EOJ, editor. Restoring diversity. Strategies for reintroduction of endangered plants. Washington (DC): Island Press; p. 171207.
59. Guerrant EOJ., 2012. "Characterizing two decades of rare plant reintroductions". In: Guerrant EOJ, editor. Plant reintroduction in a changing climate: promises and perils. Washington (DC): Island Press; p. 929.
60. Guerrant EOJ,, Kaye TN. 2007. "Reintroduction of rare and endangered plants: common factors, questions and approaches". Aust J Bot. Vol 55:362370. [Crossref]
61. Halme P,, Monkkonen M,, Kotiaho JS,, Ylisirnio A-L,, Markkanen A. 2009. "Quantifying the indicator power of an indicator species". Conserv Biol. Vol 23:10081016. [Crossref]
62. Hanski I,, Ovaskainen O. 2002. "Extinction debt at extinction threshold". Conserv Biol. Vol 16:666673. [Crossref]
63. He L-Y,, Tang CQ,, Wu Z-L,, Wang H-C,, Ohsawa M,, Yan K. 2015. "Forest structure and regeneration of the Tertiary relict Taiwania cryptomerioides in the Gaoligong Mountains, Yunnan, southwestern China". Phytocoenologia. Vol 45:135155. [Crossref]
64. Herranz JM,, Ferrandis P,, Martínez-Duro E. 2010. "Seed germination ecology of the threatened endemic Iberian Delphinium fissum subsp. sordidum (Ranunculaceae)". Plant Ecol. Vol 211:89106. [Crossref]
65. Heywood VH. 2016. "In situ conservation of plant species – an unattainable goal?" Isr J Plant Sci. Vol 63:211231. DOI: 10.1080/07929978.2015.1035605
66. Hobbs RJ,, Hallett LM,, Ehrlich PR,, Mooney HA. 2011. "Intervention ecology: applying ecological science in the twenty-first century". Bioscience. Vol 61:442450. [Crossref]
67. Hobbs RJ,, Higgs E,, Harris JA. 2009. "Novel ecosystems: implications for conservation and restoration". Trends Ecol Evol. Vol 24:599605. [Crossref]
68. Hobbs RJ,, Norton DA. 1996. "Towards a conceptual framework for restoration ecology". Restor Ecol. Vol 4:93110. [Crossref]
69. Holl KD,, Cairns J,. 2002. "Monitoring and appraisal". In: Holl KD,, Cairns J, editors. Handbook of ecological restoration. Principles of restoration. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press; p. 409432.
70. Holl KD,, Zahawi RA,, Cole RJ,, Ostertag R,, Cordell S. 2011. "Planting seedlings in tree islands versus plantations as a large-scale tropical forest restoration strategy". Restor Ecol. Vol 19:470479. [Crossref]
71. Howe HF,, Martínez-Garza C. 2014. "Restoration as experiment". Bot Sci. Vol 92:459468. [Crossref]
72. Huenneke LF., 1991. "Ecological implications of genetic variation in plant populations". In: Huenneke LF, editor. Genetics and conservation of rare plants. New York: Oxford University Press; p. 3144.
73. Huston M. 1979. "A general hypothesis of species diversity". Am Nat. Vol 113:81101. [Crossref]
74. Hylander K,, Ehrlen J. 2013. "The mechanisms causing extinction debts". Trends Ecol Evol. Vol 28:341346. [Crossref]
75. Inman-Narahari F,, Ostertag R,, Asner GP,, Cordell S,, Hubbell SP,, Sack L. 2014. "Trade-offs in seedling growth and survival within and across tropical forest microhabitats". Ecol Evol. Vol 4:37553767. [Crossref]
76. Jackson LL,, Lopoukhine N,, Hillyard D. 1995. "Ecological restoration: a definition and options". Restor Ecol. Vol 3:7175. [Crossref]
77. Jacobs DF,, Dalgleish HJ,, Nelson CD. 2013. "A conceptual framework for restoration of threatened plants: the effective model of American chestnut (Castanea dentata) reintroduction". New Phytol. Vol 197:378393. [Crossref]
78. Janzen DH., 2001. "Latent extinctions: the living dead". In: Levin SA, editor. Encyclopedia of biodiversity. New York: Academic Press; p. 689699.
79. Jensen A,, Meilby H. 2012. "Assessing the population status of a tree species using distance sampling: Aquilaria crassna (Thymelaeaceae) in Northern Laos". Int J For Res. Article ID 265831. DOI:10.1155/2012/265831.
80. Kuussaari M, Bommarco R, Heikkinen RK, Helm A, Krauss J, Lindborg R, Ockinger E, Partel M, Pino J, Roda F, Stefanescu C, Teder T, Zobel M, Steffan-Dewenter I. 2009. Extinction debt: a challenge for biodiversity conservation. Trends Ecol Evol. 24:564–571.
81. Kelly CK,, Smith HB,, Buckley YM,, Carter R,, Franco M,, Johnson W,, Jones T,, May B,, Pérez Ishiwara R,, Pérez-Jiménez A, et al. 2001. "Investigations in commonness and rarity: a comparative analysis of co-occurring, congeneric Mexican trees". Ecol Lett. Vol 4:618627. [Crossref]
82. Koch C,, Kollmann J. 2012. "Clonal re-introduction of endangered plant species: the case of German false tamarisk in pre-Alpine rivers". Environ Manage. Vol 50:217225. [Crossref]
83. Laguna E,, Deltoro VI,, Pérez-Botella J,, Pérez-Rovira P,, Serra L,, Olivares A,, Fabregat C. 2004. "The role of small reserves in plant conservation in a region of high diversity in eastern Spain". Biol Conserv. Vol 119:421426. [Crossref]
84. Laguna E,, Fosa S,, Jiménez J,, Volis S. 2016. "Role of micro-reserves in conservation of endemic, rare and endangered plants of the Valencian region (Eastern Spain)". Isr J Pl Sci. Vol 63:320332. DOI: 10.1080/07929978.2016.1256131
85. Lamb D,, Stanturf J,, Madsen P,. 2012. "What is forest landscape restoration?" In: Lamb D,, Stanturf J,, Madsen P, editors. Forest landscape restoration: integrating natural and social sciences. World forests. Dordrecht: Springer.
86. Laurance WF,, Gascon C,, Rankin-de Merona JM. 1999. "Predicting effects of habitat destruction on plant communities: a test of a model using Amazonian trees". Ecol Appl. Vol 9:548554. [Crossref]
87. Liebsch D,, Marques MCM,, Goldenbeg R. 2008. "How long does the Atlantic Rain Forest take to recover after a disturbance? Changes in species composition and ecological features during secondary succession". Biol Conserv. Vol 141:17171725. [Crossref]
88. Liu JG,, Linderman M,, Ouyang ZY,, An L,, Yang J,, Zhang HM. 2001. "Ecological degradation in protected areas: the case of Wolong Nature Reserve for giant pandas". Science. Vol 292:98101. [Crossref]
89. López-Pujol J,, Zhang F-M,, Ge S. 2006. "Plant biodiversity in China: richly varied, endangered, and in need of conservation". Biodivers Conserv. Vol 15:39834026. [Crossref]
90. Lu Y,, Ranjitkar S,, Xu J-C,, Ou X-K,, Zhou Y-Z,, Ye J-F,, Wu X-F,, Weyerhaeuser H,, He J. 2016. "Propagation of native tree species to restore subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests in SW China". Forests. 7:12. DOI:10.3390/f7010012
91. Maina GG,, Howe HF. 2000. "Inherent rarity in community restoration". Conserv Biol. Vol 14:13351340. [Crossref]
92. Manchester SR,, Chen ZD,, Lu AM,, Uemura K. 2009. "Eastern Asian endemic seed plant genera and their paleogeographic history throughout the Northern Hemisphere". J Syst Evol. Vol 47:142. [Crossref]
93. Martínez-Garza C,, Howe HF. 2003. "Restoring tropical diversity: beating the time tax on species loss". J Appl Ecol. Vol 40:423429. [Crossref]
94. Martínez-Garza C,, Tobon W,, Campo J,, Howe HF. 2013. "Drought mortality of tree seedlings in an eroded tropical pasture". Land Degrad Dev. Vol 24:287295. [Crossref]
95. Maunder M. 1992. Plant reintroduction -- an overview. Biodivers Conserv. 1:51–61.
96. McIntyre S,, Hobbs R. 1999. "A framework for conceptualizing human effects on landscapes and its relevance to management and research models". Conserv Biol. Vol 13:12821292. [Crossref]
97. Menges ES. 2008. "Restoration demography and genetics of plants: when is a translocation successful?" Aust J Bot. Vol 56:187196. [Crossref]
98. Millar CI,, Brubaker LB,. 2006. "Climate change and paleoecology: new contexts for restoration ecology". In: Millar CI,, Brubaker LB, editors. Foundations of restoration ecology. Washington (DC): Society for Ecological, Restoration, International, Island Press; p. 315340.
99. Millet J,, Tran N,, Ngoc NV,, Thi TT,, Prat D. 2013. "Enrichment planting of native species for biodiversity conservation in a logged tree plantation in Vietnam". New Forest. Vol 44:369383. [Crossref]
100. Montalvo AM,, Williams SL,, Rice KJ,, Buchmann SL,, Cory C,, Handel SN,, Nabhan GP,, Primack R,, Robichaux RH. 1997. "Restoration biology: a population biology perspective". Restor Ecol. Vol 5:277290. [Crossref]
101. Montoya D,, Zavala MA,, Rodriguez MA,, Purves DW. 2008. "Animal versus wind dispersal and the robustness of tree species to deforestation". Science. Vol 320:15021504. [Crossref]
102. Morgan JW. 1999. "Have tubestock plantings successfully established populations of rare grassland species into reintroduction sites in western Victoria?" Biol Conserv. Vol 89:235243. [Crossref]
103. Mori AS,, Kitagawa R. 2014. "Retention forestry as a major paradigm for safeguarding forest biodiversity in productive landscapes: a global meta-analysis". Biol Conserv. Vol 175:6573. [Crossref]
104. Neel MC,, Leidner AK,, Haines A,, Goble DD,, Scott JM. 2012. "By the numbers: how is recovery defined by the US Endangered Act?" Bioscience. Vol 62:646657. [Crossref]
105. Ngo TL,, Hoelscher D. 2014. "The fate of five rare tree species after logging in a tropical limestone forest (Xuan Son National Park, northern Vietnam)". Trop Conserv Sci. Vol 7:326341. [Crossref]
106. Ogden J,, Stewart GH,. 1995. "Community dynamics of the New Zealand conifers". In: Ogden J,, Stewart GH, editors. Ecology of the southern conifers. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.
107. Oostermeijer JGB,, Luijten SH,, den Nijs JCM. 2003. "Integrating demographic and genetic approaches in plant conservation". Biol Conserv. Vol 113:389398. [Crossref]
108. Pinard MA,, Putz FE. 1996. "Retaining forest biomass by reducing logging damage". Biotropica. Vol 28:278295. [Crossref]
109. Poorter L,, Bongers F,, van Rompaey R,, de Klerk M. 1996. "Regeneration of canopy tree species at five sites in West African moist forest". Forest Ecol Manag. Vol 84:6169. [Crossref]
110. Primack RB,, Drayton B. 1997. "The experimental ecology of reintroduction". Plant Talk. Vol 11:2528.
111. Qian S,, Yang Y,, Tang CQ,, Momohara A,, Yi S,, Ohsawa M. 2016. "Effective conservation measures are needed for wild Cathaya argyrophylla populations in China: insights from the population structure and regeneration characteristics". Forest Ecol Manag. Vol 361:358367. [Crossref]
112. Rabinowitz D,, Cairns S,, Dillon T,. 1986. "Seven forms of rarity and their frequency in the flora of the British Isles". In: Rabinowitz D,, Cairns S,, Dillon T, editors. Conservation biology: the science of scarcity and diversity. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates; p. 182204.
113. Ratnamhin A,, Elliott S,, Wangpakapattanawong P. 2011. "Vegetative propagation of rare tree species for forest restoration". Chiang Mai Journal of Science. Vol 38:306310.
114. Reiter N,, Whitfield J,, Pollard G,, Bedggood W,, Argall M,, Dixon K,, Davis B,, Swarts N. 2016. "Orchid re-introductions: an evaluation of success and ecological considerations using key comparative studies from Australia". Plant Ecol. Vol 217:8195. [Crossref]
115. Rodrigues RR,, Gandolfi S,, Nave AG,, Aronson J,, Barreto TE,, Vidal CY,, Brancalion PHS. 2011. "Large-scale ecological restoration of high-diversity tropical forests in SE Brazil". Forest Ecol Manag. Vol 261:16051613. [Crossref]
116. Román-Dañobeytia FJ,, Levy-Tacher SI,, Aronson J,, Rodrigues RR,, Castellanos-Albores J. 2012. "Testing the performance of fourteen native tropical tree species in two abandoned pastures of the Lacandon rainforest region of Chiapas, Mexico". Restor Ecol. Vol 20:378386. [Crossref]
117. Schröder A,, Persson L,, De Roos AM. 2005. "Direct experimental evidence for alternative stable states: a review". Oikos. Vol 110:319. [Crossref]
118. Seddon PJ,, Armstrong DP,, Maloney RF. 2007. "Developing the science of reintroduction biology". Conserv Biol. Vol 21:303312. [Crossref]
119. Shoo LP,, Freebody K,, Kanowski J,, Catterall CP. 2016. "Slow recovery of tropical old-field rainforest regrowth and the value and limitations of active restoration". Conserv Biol. Vol 30:121132. [Crossref]
120. Souza AF. 2007. "Ecological interpretation of multiple population size structures in trees: the case of Araucaria angustifolia in South America". Austral Ecol. Vol 32:524533. [Crossref]
121. Stanturf JA,, Palik BJ,, Dumroese RK. 2014. "Contemporary forest restoration: a review emphasizing function". Forest Ecol Manag. Vol 331:292323. [Crossref]
122. Suding KN,, Gross KL,, Houseman GR. 2004. "Alternative states and positive feedbacks in Restor Ecol". Trends Ecol Evol. Vol 19:4653. [Crossref]
123. Suding KN,, Hobbs RJ. 2009. "Threshold models in restoration and conservation: a developing framework". Trends Ecol Evol. Vol 24:271279. [Crossref]
124. Tang CQ,, He L-Y,, Gao Z,, Zhao X-F,, Sun W-B,, Ohsawa M. 2011a. "Habitat fragmentation, degradation, and population status of endangered Michelia coriacea in Southeastern Yunnan, China". Mt Res Dev. Vol 31:343350. [Crossref]
125. Tang CQ,, Ohsawa M. 2002. "Tertiary relic deciduous forests on a humid subtropical mountain, Mt. Emei, Sichuan, China". Folia Geobot. Vol 37:93106. [Crossref]
126. Tang CQ,, Peng M-C,, He L-Y,, Ohsawa M,, Wang C-Y,, Xie T-H,, Li W-S,, Li J-P,, Zhang H-Y,, Li Y, et al. 2013. "Population persistence of a Tertiary relict tree Tetracentron sinense on the Ailao Mountains, Yunnan, China". J Plant Res. Vol 126:651659. [Crossref]
127. Tang CQ,, Yang Y,, Ohsawa M,, Momohara A,, Hara M,, Cheng S,, Fan S. 2011b. "Population structure of relict Metasequoia glyptostroboides and its habitat fragmentation and degradation in south-central China". Biol Conserv. Vol 144:279289. [Crossref]
128. Tang CQ,, Yang Y,, Ohsawa M,, Momohara A,, Yi S-R,, Robertson K,, Song K,, Zhang S-Q,, He L-Y. 2015. "Community structure and survival of Tertiary relict Thuja sutchuenensis (Cupressaceae) in the subtropical Daba Mountains, Southwestern China". PLoS One. Vol 10. e0125307 [Crossref]
129. Tear TH,, Kareiva P,, Angermeier PL,, Comer P,, Czech B,, Kautz R,, Landon L,, Mehlman D,, Murphy K,, Ruckelshaus M, et al. 2005. "How much is enough? The recurrent problem of setting measurable objectives in conservation". Bioscience. Vol 55:835849. [Crossref]
130. Temperton VM,, Hobbs RJ,, Nuttle T,, Halle S, editors. 2004. Assembly rules and restoration ecology. Washington (DC): Island Press.
131. Thorne RF. 1999. "Eastern Asia as a living museum for archaic Angiosperms and other seed plants". Taiwania. Vol 44:413422.
132. Tilman D,, Lehman CL,. 1997. "Habitat destruction and species extinction". In: Tilman D,, Lehman CL, editors. Spatial ecology: the role of space in population dynamics and interspecific interactions. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press; p. 233249.
133. Tilman D,, May RM,, Lehman CL,, Nowak MA. 1994. "Habitat destruction and the extinction debt". Nature. Vol 371:6566. [Crossref]
134. Tozer MG,, Mackenzie BDE,, Simpson CC. 2012. "An application of plant functional types for predicting restoration outcomes". Restor Ecol. Vol 20:730739. [Crossref]
135. Vlam M,, Baker PJ,, Bunyavejchewin S,, Mohren GMJ,, Zuidema PA. 2014. "Understanding recruitment failure in tropical tree species: insights from a tree-ring study". Forest Ecol Manag. Vol 312:108116. [Crossref]
136. Volis S. 2016a. "Species-targeted plant conservation: time for conceptual integration". Isr J Plant Sci. Vol 63:232249. DOI: 10.1080/07929978.2015.1085203
137. Volis S. 2016b. "How to conserve threatened Chinese species with extremely small populations?" Plant Divers. Vol 38:5362. [Crossref]
138. Volis S. 2016c. "Conservation-oriented restoration – how to make it a success?" Isr J Plant Sci. Vol 63:276296. DOI: 10.1080/07929978.2016.1255020
139. Wei X,, Wu H,, Meng H,, Pang C,, Jiang M. 2015. "Regeneration dynamics of Euptelea pleiospermum along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients: trade-offs between seedling and sprout". Forest Ecol Manag. Vol 353:232239. [Crossref]
140. White PS,, Walker JL. 1997. "Approximating nature's variation: selecting and using reference information in restoration ecology". Restor Ecol. Vol 5:338349. [Crossref]
141. Whitmore TC., 1991. "Tropical rain forest dynamics and its implications for management". In: Whitmore TC, editor. Rain forest regeneration and management. Lancaster, UK and Paris: UNESCO and Parthenon Publishing; p. 6789.
142. Wiens JA,, Hobbs RJ. 2015. "Integrating conservation and restoration in a changing world". Bioscience. Vol 65:302312. [Crossref]
143. Willis KJ,, Gillson L,, Brncic TM. 2004. "How “virgin” is virgin rainforest?" Science. Vol 304:402403. [Crossref]
144. Wishnie MH,, Dent DH,, Mariscal E,, Deago J,, Cedeno N,, Ibarra D,, Condit R,, Ashton PMS. 2007. "Initial performance and reforestation potential of 24 tropical tree species planted across a precipitation gradient in the Republic of Panama". Forest Ecol Manag. Vol 243:3949. [Crossref]
145. Wright SJ. 2005. "Tropical forests in a changing environment". Trends Ecol Evol. Vol 20:553560. [Crossref]
146. Xu H,, Li Y,, Liu S,, Zang R,, He F,, Spence JR. 2015. "Partial recovery of a tropical rain forest a half-century after clear-cut and selective logging". J Appl Ecol. Vol 52:10441052. [Crossref]
147. Yang X,, Bauhus J,, Both S,, Fang T,, Haerdtle W,, Kroeber W,, Ma K,, Nadrowski K,, Pei K,, Scherer-Lorenzen M, et al. 2013. "Establishment success in a forest biodiversity and ecosystem functioning experiment in subtropical China (BEF-China)". Eur J Forest Res. Vol 132:593606. [Crossref]
148. Yoshioka A,, Akasaka M,, Kadoya T. 2014. "Spatial prioritization for biodiversity restoration: a simple framework referencing past species distributions". Restor Ecol. Vol 22:185195. [Crossref]
149. Young TP. 2000. "Restoration ecology and conservation biology". Biol Conserv. Vol 92:7383. [Crossref]
150. Young TP,, Petersen DA,, Clary JJ. 2005. "The ecology of restoration: historical links, emerging issues and unexplored realms". Ecol Lett. Vol 8:662673. [Crossref]
151. Zahawi RA,, Augspurger CK. 2006. "Tropical forest restoration: tree islands as recruitment foci in degraded lands of Honduras". Ecol Appl. Vol 16:464478. [Crossref]
152. Zahawi RA,, Holl KD. 2009. "Comparing the performance of tree stakes and seedlings to restore abandoned tropical pastures". Restor Ecol. Vol 17:854864. [Crossref]
153. Zeng FP,, Peng WX,, Song TQ,, Wang KL,, Wu HY,, Song XJ,, Zeng ZX. 2007. "Changes in vegetation after 22 years’ natural restoration in the karst disturbed area in northwest Guangxi". Acta Ecologica Sinica. Vol 27:51105119. [Crossref]
154. Zobel M,, van der Maarel E,, Dupre C. 1998. "Species pool: the concept, its determination and significance for community restoration". Appl Veg Sci. Vol 1:5566. [Crossref]

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    Israel Journal of Plant Sciences — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation