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Anti-predator strategies of free-ranging Campbell's monkeys

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Habitat type, predation pressure and reproductive interests are all thought to determine the anti-predator behaviour of non-primates, but only few systematic studies exist. Here, we experimentally elicited anti-predator behaviour in six different groups of forest-living Campbell's monkeys, using visual and acoustic models of leopards, crowned eagles, and snakes. Individuals produced a variety of anti-predator behaviours, depending on the type of predator and whether or not it was visible. Adult males generally behaved conspicuously, either by attacking eagles or producing threat behaviours at a distance to leopards. Adult females remained cryptic to eagles, but joined their male in approaching leopards. To snakes, both males and females responded strongly to familiar Gaboon vipers, but far less to unfamiliar black mambas. Finally, if a predator could only be heard, both males and females produced fewer alarm calls and often changed their vertical position in the canopy (upwards for leopards; downwards for eagles), despite all predator vocalisations being presented from the ground. We concluded that Campbell's monkeys display sex-specific anti-predator behaviours, which are largely driven by the predators' hunting techniques, mode of predator detection and the forest habitat structure.

Affiliations: 1: Ethologie animale et humaine, U.M.R. 6552-C.N.R.S., Université de Rennes 1, France; Laboratoire de zoologie et de biologie animale, Université de Cocody, Côte d'Ivoire; Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques, Taï Monkey Project, Côte d'Ivoire; 2: Ethologie animale et humaine, U.M.R. 6552-C.N.R.S., Université de Rennes 1, France; 3: Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques, Taï Monkey Project, Côte d'Ivoire; School of Psychology, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, UK

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