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The unexpected discovery of a brackish water amphipod, Gammarus zaddachi Sexton, 1912, found isolated at 150 m depth in an inland freshwater lake in Norway

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[From the deepest layers of the large Lake Eikeren in southern Norway, 48 specimens of an amphipod were collected. Species identification by morphological keys gave as a result Gammarus zaddachi Sexton, 1912. In Europe, this species is only known from shallow brackish water, or from habitats near the sea where brackish sites are reachable. The surface of Lake Eikeren today is 19 m above sea level. Separation from the sea occurred some 5000 years ago. In this 150 m deep lake a long period has then elapsed during which a change from saline to brackish and later to fresh water took place. Today only fresh water prevails in all water layers. The maximum length of G. zaddachi in Lake Eikeren is larger than it is in other European populations. More studies are required to understand how this shallow-living brackish water species has adapted to a life in the deep areas of a freshwater lake. In den tiefsten Schichten des großen Sees Eikeren in Südnorwegen sind 48 Exemplare eines Amphipoden gefangen worden, der morphologisch als Gammarus zaddachi Sexton, 1912 bestimmt wurde. Diese Art ist in Europa nur aus flachem Brackwasser oder von Brackwasserhabitaten in der Nähe des Meeres bekannt, die von dort erreichbar sind. Die Oberfläche des Sees befindet sich heute 19 m über dem Meeresspiegel. Die Trennung vom Meer hat vor etwa 5000 Jahren stattgefunden. Es hat dann lange gedauert, bis aus dem 150 m tiefen Salzwassersee erst ein Brackwasser- und schließlich ein reiner Süßwassersee geworden ist. Die maximale Länge von G. zaddachi des Eikeren übertrifft die in anderen europäischen Populationen. Weitere Untersuchungen sind nötig um herauszufinden, wie sich diese Art des flachen Brackwassers an ein Leben in den Tiefen eines reinen Süßwassersees hat anpassen können., From the deepest layers of the large Lake Eikeren in southern Norway, 48 specimens of an amphipod were collected. Species identification by morphological keys gave as a result Gammarus zaddachi Sexton, 1912. In Europe, this species is only known from shallow brackish water, or from habitats near the sea where brackish sites are reachable. The surface of Lake Eikeren today is 19 m above sea level. Separation from the sea occurred some 5000 years ago. In this 150 m deep lake a long period has then elapsed during which a change from saline to brackish and later to fresh water took place. Today only fresh water prevails in all water layers. The maximum length of G. zaddachi in Lake Eikeren is larger than it is in other European populations. More studies are required to understand how this shallow-living brackish water species has adapted to a life in the deep areas of a freshwater lake. In den tiefsten Schichten des großen Sees Eikeren in Südnorwegen sind 48 Exemplare eines Amphipoden gefangen worden, der morphologisch als Gammarus zaddachi Sexton, 1912 bestimmt wurde. Diese Art ist in Europa nur aus flachem Brackwasser oder von Brackwasserhabitaten in der Nähe des Meeres bekannt, die von dort erreichbar sind. Die Oberfläche des Sees befindet sich heute 19 m über dem Meeresspiegel. Die Trennung vom Meer hat vor etwa 5000 Jahren stattgefunden. Es hat dann lange gedauert, bis aus dem 150 m tiefen Salzwassersee erst ein Brackwasser- und schließlich ein reiner Süßwassersee geworden ist. Die maximale Länge von G. zaddachi des Eikeren übertrifft die in anderen europäischen Populationen. Weitere Untersuchungen sind nötig um herauszufinden, wie sich diese Art des flachen Brackwassers an ein Leben in den Tiefen eines reinen Süßwassersees hat anpassen können.]

Affiliations: 1: Norwegian Institute of Nature Research NINA, P.O. Box 5685 Sluppen, NO-7485 Trondheim, Norway; 2: Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1027 Blindern, NO-0316 Oslo, Norway; 3: Bråtagata 52, NO-3095 Eidsfoss, Norway; 4: Røyskattstien 4C, NO-3188 Horten, Norway

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/content/journals/10.1163/001121611x574263
2011-05-01
2016-12-07

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