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Effect of Soil Texture On Xiphinema Americanum and X. RIhEsi*)

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Apple orchard soil containing mixed populations of Xiphinema americanum and X. rivesi was unamended or amended with sand or silt and planted with sudan grass in pots in the greenhouse. The sand amendment (80% sand, 15% gravel, 4% silt and clay) and the silt amendment (48% silt, 24% clay, and 28% sand) were from the same orchard soil and were added at 50% and 25% (wt/wt), respectively. The population density of each species of Xiphinema in the top and bottom half (position) of each pot was determined at planting of sudan grass and 4, 9, and 14 months later. The percentage X. americanum (based on total Xiphinema specimens present) dramatically increased (from about 29 % at month 0 to about 82 % at month 14) in all treatments. The rate of increase in percentage X. americanum was not significantly affected by soil texture but was significantly greater in the top than in the bottom position. After 14 months, the top position had a higher root mass, greater aggregate stability (soil structure), and greater macroporosity than the bottom position. Root mass, aggregate stability, and macroporosity were not significantly affected by soil texture.

Affiliations: 1: ) Department of Nematology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616; 2: ) USDA, Appalachian Fruit Research Station, Kearneysville, WV 25430; 3: ) Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, Harrisburg, PA 17110; 4: ) Department of Plant Pathology, Pennsylvania State University, Fruit Research Laboratory, Biglerville, PA 17307


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