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A Cytological Study of the Proliferation Patterns in Imaginal Disks of Calliphora Erythrocephala Meigen During Larval and Pupal Development

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image of Netherlands Journal of Zoology
For more content, see Archives Néerlandaises de Zoologie (Vol 1-17) and Animal Biology (Vol 53 and onwards).

1. The wing and haltere disks of Calliphora show characteristic proliferation patterns during their development. There is a gradient in the proliferation rate from the bases to the tips of the main folds and a radial gradient from the periphery of the caudal disk parts to the centres of the pouches at both sides (medial and lateral), of the disks. The bases of the folds and the periphery of the disks always show the highest proliferation rates. If a fold arises from a flat part of epithelium, the presumptive folding area is characterized by a temporary increase of mitotic activity. 2. Until the middle of the resting period the area of the median crossridge and the additional rostral fold of the wing disks show more cell divisions than the caudal wing base and additional fold. This could be one of the major causes of wing pouch invagination into the peripodial cavity in the latero-caudal direction. 3. From the middle of the feeding period two cell populations seem to exist in the disk epithelium, a dividing and a non-dividing population. 4. The results of the analysis of the median crossridge show that roughly 60% of the mitotic spindles lie more or less perpendicular to the tangent plane at the tip of the fold. This is probably also the case in the other folds in the caudal parts of the wing and haltere disks. Because all of the folds mentioned above run more or less in ellipsoid rings around the centre of the pouches, it is reasonable to conclude that there is a radially oriented proliferation stowage from the bases to the tips of the folds and to the tip of the pouches during the morphogenesis of these disks. 5. A significant growth retardation occurs in the imaginal disks as well as in the larvae as a whole after about 25 to 30% of the third larval instar has elapsed. This period is called 'the critical developmental period' ('seventy hours change', BEADLE, 1938), because within the Diptera morphological, physiological, cytological, and hormonal symptoms indicate a determination change or shift at this stage. A simplified interacting system of over-all larval growth and the growth of the imaginal disks is discussed. 6. Cell death is thought to be a major qualitative and quantitative factor in the morphogenesis of the disks. A developmental model (revised after Sprey, 1971) of the appendages is presented. The typical contours of the wing and haltere can now be seen as partly derived from the qualitative and quantitative cell-death patterns, growth-rate gradients, and spindle orientations.

Affiliations: 1: Zoological Laboratory, University of Leiden, Leiden, The Netherlands


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