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Anatomy of the Muscle-Bone Apparatus of the Cervical System in the Mallard (Anas Platyrhynchos L.)

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image of Netherlands Journal of Zoology
For more content, see Archives Néerlandaises de Zoologie (Vol 1-17) and Animal Biology (Vol 53 and onwards).

The gross morphology of the muscle-bone-ligament apparatus of the cervical system in the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos L.) was analysed. A detailed description was made of the osteology, arthrology and myology of the system. In the section on osteology a comparison was made of several earlier nomenclatures with the terminology used in this study. The description of all homologous bony elements found in the mallard's subsequent vertebrae and the mentioned terminological comparison have led to thirty suggestions for additions to the earlier nomenclatures. The section on arthrology informs about several newly described structures among the extracapsular ligaments and intervertebral menisci. The occurrence of elastic fibers and menisci, as well as the capsular organization is estimated from histological cross-sections. The section on myology subdivides the system in four parts: the cranio-cervical, the dorsal, ventral and lateral subsystem. In each of them new features were added for comparative purposes and for functional anatomical analysis. Also the muscles which often received less attention because of their complexity or their difficult position are analysed in detail. For example, the Musc.splenii accessorii, the Musc.intercristales, the Musc.intertransversarii, and the Musc.inclusi are included and their structures and connections are also studied from microsections of an in toto embedded cervical system.

Affiliations: 1: Zoologisches Museum der Universität Zürich-Irchel, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zürich, Switzerland; 2: Department of Morphology, Zoological Laboratory, University of Leiden, Kaiserstraat 63, 2311 GP Leiden, The Netherlands


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