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Influence of Temperature On the Development and Survival of Meloidogyne Javanica

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Responses to temperature of a population of Meloidogyne javanica from Tanzania were examined. The minimum time for development from J2 to first J2 of the next generation was determined over a temperature range from 18-30°C. The rate of development increased linearly between 18°C and 27°C and, on a thermal time basis, the threshold or base temperature for development was estimated by extrapolation to be 12.9° C and the requirement for development c. 350°C days above base. These values are compared with those for M. hapla, a temperate species, and their effects on development time in relation to temperature are discussed. The effect of higher temperatures on egg viability was also tested. Short exposures to 70°C were lethal and exposure to 45°C and above killed a progressively increasing proportion of eggs. Exposure in the field in Tanzania of egg masses buried at different depths to solarization under clear polythene sheeting showed that at 15 cm depth all eggs were dead after 2-3 weeks with an average and a maximum soil temperature at 16.00 h of 43°C and 45°C respectively for the covered and 40°C and 42°C for the uncovered plots. Irrigating the plots before covering slightly decreased mean soil temperatures compared with the covered, dry plots and greatly increased egg survival.

Affiliations: 1: Scottish Crop Research Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee DD2 5DA, UK


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