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Utopias in Social Planning Utility in Four Southevst Asion Nations

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This paper examines the role of utopias in social planning in the four Southeast Asian nations of Burma, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore. Southeast Asian utopias are generally incomplete and are represented by vague though highly agreeable images of the future. Nevertheless they give direction to and help to legitimate social planning efforts. They are no mere "castles in the air" but represent future hopes for the mosses. They help to solicit mass participation and support for social planning efforts. They are symbolic of a brighter tomorrow in these nations. Even if they can never be achieved, Southeast Asian utopias gained sufficient merit as factors promoting social change through their impacts on various planned development efforts.

Affiliations: 1: University of Bielefeld, Germany


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