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Ultrastructure and life history of Myolaimus byersi n. sp. (Myolaimina: Myolaimidae), a phoretic associate of the crane fly, Limonia schwarzi (Alexander) (Limoniidae), in Florida

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For more content, see Nematologica.

Myolaimus byersi n. sp., a phoretic associate of the crane fly, Limonia (Rhipidia) schwarzi (Diptera: Limoniidae), was recovered from moist and decaying tissue from the crown shaft of a living spindle palm, Hyophorbe verschaffeltii, in southern Florida and is described herein. Dauers were carried in the abdominal folds of male and female L. schwarzi. Examination of the highly mobile crane fly larvae and pupae confirmed that the dauers were externally associated with the cuticle. Dauers from crane flies were culturable to adults on 1/20 strength TSB agar. The association appears to be relatively host specific. SEM studies, early embryonic development, dauers, molecular data and TEM ultrastructural comparisons of the stoma, sensory structures and sperm are used to discuss the relative placement of Myolaimus within the Nematoda. The stoma resembles diplogastrids in being strongly anisomorphic with an enlarged dorsal sector of the stegostom, yet also resembles rhabditids in having three triangular flaps in the metastegostom and matches cephalobs and panagrolaims in having a pharyngeal collar with two sets of three interradial muscles followed by two sets of six adradial muscles. The ultrastructure of the cheilostom epidermis shows a high degree of conservation with several Rhabditida. The sperm of M. byersi n. sp. is nearly identical to that of Caenorhabditis elegans. In early cell division, M. byersi n. sp. is closest to Parascaris equorum followed by C. elegans. Myolaimus apparently represents a divergent lineage that has followed a non-coalescing trajectory for a long time, allowing it to retain some highly conserved characters while also developing some surprisingly unique features, such as a baggy cuticle and males that lack a gubernaculum or spicules.

Affiliations: 1: Fort Lauderdale Research and Education Center, University of Florida-IFAS, 3205 College Avenue, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33314-7719, USA; 2: Fort Lauderdale Research and Education Center, University of Florida-IFAS, 3205 College Avenue, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33314-7719, USA; Forest Pathology Laboratory, Forestry and Forest Product Research Institute, 1 Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8687, Japan; 3: Department of Nematology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA; 4: Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, University of Florida-IFAS, P.O. Box 110700, Gainesville, FL 32611-0700, USA; 5: Zoological Institute, University of Cologne, D-50923 Köln, Germany; 6: Fort Lauderdale Research and Education Center, University of Florida-IFAS, 3205 College Avenue, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33314-7719, USA; Nature and Environmental Department, Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Technology, Guangzhou, China

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/content/journals/10.1163/138855409x12519673803912
2010-07-01
2016-12-05

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