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The Causative Internal Passive in Qumran Aramaic

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Although the prevailing vocalism of the Aramaic causative internal passive is thought to be ‘Hophʿal’, there is some evidence for an alternative vocalism with short /a/ in the first syllable, therefore ‘Haphʿal’. The orthographic renderings of the causative passive in Qumran Aramaic suggest that the vocalism in that dialect was throughout ‘Haphʿal’. Although it is tempting to hypothesize that ‘Haphʿal’ was in fact the normal vocalism of the stem in all ancient Aramaic, it is possible that ‘Hophʿal’ was also used in some dialects. Finally, it is suggested that the vocalism of the ‘Ittaphʿal’ stem is based on the ‘Haphʿal’.

Affiliations: 1: Catholic University of America


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