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Legal Maxims as a Genre of Islamic Law


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Origins, Development and Significance of Al-Qawāʿid al-Fiqhiyya


Al-qawāʿid al-fiqhiyya are legal maxims or principles that are usually expressed in the form of terse adages, such as: al-umūr bi-maqāṣidihā (acts are [judged according] to the objectives behind them); and al-mashaqqa tajlub al-taysīr (hardship brings about facilitation). Most of al-qawāʿid (sg. al-qāʿida) are specific to individual schools of law, although some of them are acknowledged by all schools. The most accepted definition of al-qāʿida al-fiqhiyya is: “A predominantly valid legal determination (ḥukm aktharī) that applies to most of its particular cases (juzʾiyyāt) so that their legal determinations will be known from it”. Another designation of the genre is al-ashbāh wa’l-naẓāʾir (similitudes), referring to the similarities between cases included under the rubric of each qāʿida. The schools of law (madhāhib, sg. madhhab) are agreed on two types of qawāʿid fiqhiyya: general qawāʿid that apply to all or most fields of the law, which are therefore known as kulliyya (universal), and specific (khāṣṣa) qawāʿid that apply to one or more, rather than all, fields of fiqh; the latter are also known as ḍawābiṭ (sg. ḍābiṭ, regulators).


1. FN11See: al-Azharī (d. 370/980), Tahdhīb al-Lugha, ed. ʿA. M. Hārūn and M. ʿA. al-Najjār (Egypt: al-Muʾassasa al-Miṣriyya al-ʿĀmma li’l-Taʾlīf wa’l-Ṭibāʿa wa’l-Nashr, 1964), 1:199–206; Khalīl b. Aḥmad al-Farāhīdī (d. 173/791), Kitab al-ʿAyn, ed. M. al-Makhzūmī, I. al-Sāmrāʾī (Iraq: Dār al-Rashīd li’l-Nashr, 1980), 1:143; Ahmad b. Fāris (d. 395/1004), Mujmal al-Lugha (Beirut: Muʾassasat al-Risāla, 1984), 760; Ibn Manẓūr (d. 711/1311), Lisān al-ʿArab (Beirut: Dār Ṣādir li’l-Ṭibāʿa wa’l-Nashr, 1955–6), 3:357–64; Ismāʿīl b. Ḥammād al-Jawharī (d. 393/ 1003), al-Ṣiḥāḥ, ed. A. ʿA. ʿAṭṭār (Beirut: Dār al-ʿIlm li’l-Malāyīn, 1979), 2:525–7. Al-Zamakhsharī, Asās al-Balāgha (Beirut: Dār Ṣādir, 1979), 515–16. 

2. FN22 It appears that Imām al-Ḥaramayn al-Juwaynī (d. 478/ 1085) and al-Ghazālī both used the word qawāʿid in their writings. Cf. Tāj al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb b. ʿAlī Ibn al-Subkī, al-Ashbāh wa’l-Naẓāʾir, ed. A. A. ʿAbd al-Mawjūd (Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya, 2001), 1:11–12; Yaʿqūb b. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb al-Bāḥusayn, al-Qawāʿid al-Fiqhiyyah (Riyadh: Maktabat al-Rushd, 1999), 274. Also see Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad al-Ghazālī, al-Wajīz (Cairo: Maṭbaʿat al-Ādāb, 1317/1899), 2:33.

3. FN33Wolfhart Heinrichs states that the term qawāʿid uṣūliyya, and possibly the notion, are from the 9th/15th century. W. Heinrichs, “Qawāʿid as a Genre of Legal Literature,” in 
B. Weiss, ed., Studies in Islamic Legal Theory (Leiden: Brill, 2002), 372. 

4. FN44See: al-Azharī (d. 370/980), Tahdhīb al-Lugha, ed. ʿA. M. Hārūn and M. ʿA. al-Najjār (Egypt: al-Muʾassasa al-Miṣriyya al-ʿĀmma li’l-Taʾlīf wa’l-Ṭibāʿa wa’l-Nashr, 1964), 1:199–206; Khalīl b. Aḥmad al-Farāhīdī (d. 173/791), Kitab al-ʿAyn, ed. M. al-Makhzūmī, I. al-Sāmrāʾī (Iraq: Dār al-Rashīd li’l-Nashr, 1980), 1:143; Ahmad b. Fāris (d. 395/1004), Mujmal al-Lugha (Beirut: Muʾassasat al-Risāla, 1984), 760; Ibn Manẓūr (d. 711/1311), Lisān al-ʿArab (Beirut: Dār Ṣādir li’l-Ṭibāʿa wa’l-Nashr, 1955–6), 3:357–64; Ismāʿīl b. Ḥammād al-Jawharī (d. 393/ 1003), al-Ṣiḥāḥ, ed. A. ʿA. ʿAṭṭār (Beirut: Dār al-ʿIlm li’l-Malāyīn, 1979), 2:525–7. 

5. FN55Al-Zamakhsharī, Asās al-Balāgha (Beirut: Dār Ṣādir, 1979), 515–16.

6. FN66Two legal compilations from the 6th/12th century whose titles include the word qawāʿid are: al-Qawāʿid, by the Shāfiʿī Ibn Dūst (d. 507/1113), and Īḍāḥ al-Qawāʿid by the Ḥanafī Abū Layth al-Samarqandī (d. 539/1144). Neither treatise is extant, and we do not know if they were treatises on al-qawāʿid al-fiqhiyya in the sense of legal maxims (Bāḥusayn, Qawāʿid, 330–2). From the same century we have al-Qawāʿid of the Mālikī al-Qāḍī ʿIyāḍ 
(d. 544/1149), also referred to as al-Iʿlām bi-Ḥudūd Qawāʿid al-Islām; this treatise has been published and is clearly not a work on al-qawāʿid al-fiqhiyya; it is about the five pillars of Islam.

7. FN77Abū Zayd al-Dabbūsī, Taʾsīs al-Naẓar (Egypt, 1902).

8. FN88Heinrichs, “Qawāʿid as a Genre,” 379.

9. FN99Heinrichs, “Qawāʿid as a Genre,” 377, 379, 381; Bāḥusayn, Qawāʿid, 339–41, 345–6; M. Ṣidqī al-Būrnū, al-Wajīz fī Īḍāḥ Qawāʿid al-Fiqh al-Kulliyya (Beirut: Muʾassasat al-Risāla, 2002), 65–6; al-Nadwī, al-Qawāʿid al-Fiqhiyya (Damascus: Dar al-Qalam, 1998), 196–202, 218–23, 256–60; Ṣāliḥ b. Ghānim al-Sadlān, al-Qawāʿid al-Fiqhiyya al-Kubrā wa-mā Tafarraʿa ʿanhā (Riyadh: Dār Balansiya li’l-Nashr wa’l-Tawzīʿ, 1999), 29. 

10. FN1010Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad al-Ghazālī, al-Mustaṣfā min ʿIlm al-Uṣūl (Cairo: Shirkat al-Ṭibāʿa al-Fanniyya al-Muttaḥida n.d.), 11–12. Works on uṣūl al-fiqh, as Makdisi rightly observes, “even up to modern times, often include an explanation of this two-word term (i.e. uṣūl al-fiqh), each word separately then the two together.” G. Makdisi, “The Juridical Theology of Shāfiʿī, Origins and Significance of Uṣūl al-Fiqh,” Studia Islamica 59 (1984), 9.

11. FN1111Ibn Qudāma al-Maqdisī, Rawḍat al-Nāẓir wa Junnat al-Munāẓir (Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya, 1981), 4. 

12. FN1212See note 3 above. For a list of al-qawāʿid al-uṣūliyya, see Nadwī, Qawāʿid, 563–5.

13. FN1313The earliest definition of the word qāʿida seems to be that of the Ḥanafī scholar Ṣadr al-Sharīʿa (d. 747/1346), who, in his compilation of uṣūl al-fiqh, defines al-qawāʿid as qaḍāyā kulliyya (universal cases). Cf. al-Taftāzānī, al-Talwīḥ ʿala al-Tawḍīḥ, ed. Z. ʿUmayrāt (Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya n.d.), 1:34. 

14. FN1414Text: al-qāʿida fī al-iṣṭilāḥ bi-maʿnā al-ḍābiṭ wa-hiya al-amr al-kullī al-munṭabiq ʿalā jamīʿ juzʾiyyātih. Al-Fayyūmī al-Maqqarī, al-Miṣbāḥ al-Munīr, ed. M. al-Saqqā (Dār al-Fikr n.p. n.d.), 2:169.

15. FN1515Text: al-qāʿida al-amr al-kullī al-ladhī yanṭabiq ʿalayh juzʾiyyāt kathīra yufham aḥkāmuhā minhā. Ibn al-Subkī, Ashbāh, 1:11. 

16. FN1616Text: Al-murād bi’l-qawāʿid al-kulliyya al-qawāʿid al-latī lam tadkhul qāʿida minhā taḥt qāʿida ukhrā wa-in kharaj minhā baʿḍ al-afrād. An example of a qāʿida that prevails over other qawāʿid is al-ḍarar yuzāl (harm is to be removed), under whose rubric many other qawāʿid are subsumed, including al-ḍarūrāt tubīḥ al-maḥẓūrāt (necessities render forbidden things [legally] harmless). Cf. Ibn al-Subkī, Ashbāh, 1:41, 45; al-Suyūṭī, Jalāl ‘l-Dīn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, al-Ashbāh wa’l-Naẓāʾir fī Qawāʿid wa Furūʿ al-Shāfiʿiyya, ed. M. Tāmir & 
Ḥ. Ḥāfiẓ (Cairo: Dār al-Salām 1998), 1:210–11. 

17. FN1717K. Musa, A Critical Edition of ʿUmdat al-Nāẓir ʿalā al-Ashbāh wa’l-Naẓāʾir of Abū ‘l-Suʿūd al-Ḥusaynī (London: The School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 
A thesis submitted for the degree of PhD, May 2010), 104.

18. FN1818The classic example of an exception to a qāʿida is the silence of a virgin when she is consulted about marriage (sukūt al-bikr ʿind istiʾmārihā), which is taken as consent. This case is an exception to the general qāʿidah: no opinion is to be attributed to a silent person (lā yunsab ilā sākit qawl). Suyūṭī, Ashbāh, 1:319; Ibn Nujaym, Ashbāh, 178; cf. Heinrichs, “Qawāʿid as a Genre,” 367–8. 

19. FN1919Al-Shāṭibī, al-Muwāfaqāt fī Uṣūl al-Aḥkām, ed. N. Darāz (Cairo: Maṭbaʿat al-Maktaba al-Tijāriyya n.d.), 2:53; cf. Heinrichs, “Qawāʿid as a Genre,” 368. 

20. FN2020Text: Ḥukm aktharī yanṭabiq ʿalā akthar juzʾīyyātih li-tuʿraf aḥkāmuhā minh. Musa, A Critical Edition, 104; cf. Heinrichs, “Qawāʿid as a Genre,” 367.

21. FN2121Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn al-ʿAlāʾī̄, al-Majmūʿ al-Mudhhab fī Qawāʿid al-Madhhab, ed. M. A. al-ʿUbaydī & A. K. ʿAbbās (Mecca: al-Maktabah al-Makkiyyah 2004) 1:14; Suyūṭī, Ashbāh, 1:61; Būrnū, al-Wajīz, 26 (adding a sixth qāʿida); Sadlān, Qawāʿid, 9; Muṣṭafā b. Aḥmad al-Zarqā, al-Madkhal al-Fiqhī al-ʿĀmm (Damascus: Dār al-Qalam 2004), 2:971.

22. FN2222These five qawāʿid are mentioned by some scholars in different orders. The above-mentioned order, which seems to be the most common, is used by al-ʿAlāʾī, al-Suyūṭī and Ibn Nujaym. 

23. FN2323Al-Karkhī, al-Uṣūl (Egypt: 1902), 83 (printed with al-Dabūsī’s, Taʾsīs al- Naẓar).

24. FN2424Bāḥusayn, Qawāʿid, 90–99, esp. 90, 99; Būrnū, 65, 94ff; Nadwī, Qawāʿid, 72; Sadlān, Qawāʿid, 27. The al-Ashbāh wa’l-Naẓāʾir title is also attributed to other disciplines, including exe­gesis: al-Ashbāh wa’l-Naẓāʾir fī al-Qurʾān al-Karīm, by Muqātil b. Sulaymān (d. 150/767) 
(cf. Bāḥusayn, Qawāʿid, 95ff; Nadwī, Qawāʿid, 78; Sadlān, Qawāʿid, 27–8) and grammar: al-Ashbāh wa’l-Naẓāʿir fī al-Naḥw by al-Suyūṭī. They deal with similitudes and exempted cases of their respective disciplines. Here we discuss works of al-Ashbāh wa’l-Naẓāʿir that deal only with fiqh. 

25. FN2525Ibn Nujaym, Ashbāh, 10.

26. FN2626According to al-Bāḥusayn, the book was printed in 1993. Bāḥusayn, Qawāʿid, 337.

27. FN2727ʿAlāʾī, al-Majmūʿ, 1:11–2; ibn al-Subkī, Ashbāh, 1:7; Bāḥusayn, Qawāʿid, 336; Nadwī, Qawāʿid, 215, 218. 

28. FN2828Two other Shāfiʿī works bear the title al-Ashbāh wa’l-Nazāʾir, but it is not certain if they are extant. A third book, said to be based on those of Ibn al-Wakīl and Ibn al-Subkī, was printed in Karachi in 1417/1996. Bāḥusayn, Qawāʿid, 343, 348, 351. 

29. FN2929Ibn Manẓūr, Lisān, 5:219, 13: 503–6; al-Zabīdī, Tāj al-ʿArūs min Jawāhir al-Qāmūs, ed. ʿAlī Shīrī (Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1994), 7:540, 19:50–2. 

30. FN3030Text: Al-mumāthala taqtaḍī al-musāwā min kull wajh wa’l-mushābaha taqtaḍī al-ishtirāk fī akthar al-wujūh lā kullihā wa’l-munāẓara takfī fī baʿḍ al-wujūh wa-law wajhan wāḥid. Al-Suyūṭī, al-Ḥāwī li’l-Fatāwī, ed. A. H. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya 2000), 2:259. Mumāthala, mushābaha and munāẓara are verbal nouns.

31. FN3131Suyūṭī, Ashbāh, 1:56–7.

32. FN3232Suyūṭī, Ashbāh, 1:58; cf. Shīrāzī, Ṭabaqāt al-Fuqahāʾ (Beirut: Dār al-Rāʾid al-ʿArabī 1970), 39–40; Ibn Qutayba, ʿUyūn al-Akhbār (1930, n. p.), 1:66. Some modern researchers doubt the authenticity of the letter. See M. Bultajī, Manhaj ʿUmar b. al-Khaṭṭāb fi’l-Tashrīʿ (Cairo: Dar al-Fikr al-ʿArabī, 1970), 43f., 507–11; Schacht, An Introduction to Islamic Law (Oxford: Oxford Uni­versity Press, 1982), 16; R. B. Serjeant, “The Caliph ʿUmar’s Letters to Abū Mūsā al-Ashʿarī and Muʿāwiya,” Journal of Semitic Studies, 29:1 (1984), 65–79. 

33. FN3333Text: Min al-naẓāʾir mā yukhālif naẓāʾirih fī al-ḥukm li-madrakin khāṣṣin bih wa-huwa al-fann al-musammā bi’l-furūq. Suyūṭī, Ashbāh, 1:58.

34. FN3434Text: Al-masāʾil al-latī yashbah baʿḍuhā baʿḍ maʿa ikhtilāfihā fī ‘l-ḥukm li-umūr khafiyya adrakahā al-fuqahāʾ bi-diqqat anẓārihim. Musa, A Critical Edition, 97.

35. FN3535Ibn Nujaym, Ashbāh, 11.

36. FN3636Ibn Nujaym, Ashbāh, 489.

37. FN3737The title on the printed edition is al-Ashbāh wa’l-Naẓāʾir; however, the editor includes a photocopy of the first page of the manuscript where the title is written clearly as: al-Ashbāh wa’l-Naẓāʾir fī’l-Furūʿ wa’l-Qawāʿid. Ibn al-Subkī, Ashbāh, 1: م. 

38. FN3838Ibn al-Subkī, Ashbāh, 1:11.

39. FN3939Ibn al-Subkī, Ashbāh, 2:202, 206.

40. FN4040Text: Al-masāʾil al-latī quṣida ikhfāʾ wajh al-ḥukm fīhā li-ajl al-imtiḥān. Musa, A Critical Edition, 97.

41. FN4141Suyūṭī, Ashbāh, 1:61, 239–351.

42. FN4242Suyūṭī, Ashbāh, 1:355ff.

43. FN4343E.g. aḥkām al-ṣabī (rules concerning the minor), aḥkām al-ʿabd (rules concerning the slave), ibid., 1:391, 440, 449.

44. FN4444However, al-Suyūṭī discusses more qawāʿid (40) than does Ibn Nujaym (19). 

45. FN4545In the general introduction to the book, Ibn Nujaym states that the second section includes discussions of al-ḍawābiṭ; however, the heading at the start of the second section reads: al-Fawāʾid (sg. fāʾida). He also explains, in the introduction to this section, that the term fawāʾid represents the ḍawābiṭ and the cases that are excepted from them (wa fī al-ḥaqīqa hiya al-ḍawābiṭ wa’l-istithnāʾāt). Ibn Nujaym, Ashbāh, 11, 192.

46. FN4646Text: Al-farq bayn al-ḍābiṭ wa’l-qāʿida anna al-qāʿida tajmaʿ furūʿ min abwāb shattā wa’l-ḍābiṭ yajmaʿuhā min bāb wāḥid. Ibid., 192. The same sentence is mentioned by al-Suyūṭī in his al-Ashbāh wa’l-Naẓāʾir fī ‘l-Naḥw (Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya 1984), 1:25–6.

47. FN4747Ibn Nujaym, Ashbāh 13–359. The book is 522 pages in length.

48. FN4848Ibn al-Subkī, Ashbāh, 2:306–11.

49. FN4949Ibn Nujaym, Ashbāh, 12.

50. FN5050The word baʿḍ is used in the Qurʾān to signify “one” (Q. 66:3).

51. FN5151Ibn al-Subkī Ashbāh, 2:7f, 22f, 78.

52. FN5252See W. Heinrichs, “Structuring the Law: Remarks on the Furūq Literature,” in I. R. Netton, Studies in Honor of Clifford Edmond Bosworth (Leiden: Brill, 2000), 1:332–44.

53. FN5353Ibn Nujaym, 12, 489.

54. FN5454Musa, A Critical Edition, 97. 

55. FN5555Heinrichs, “Structuring the Law,” 1:333.

56. FN5656Suyūṭī, Ashbāh, 2:545, 546.

57. FN5757Also see note 45 above.

58. FN5858E. g. Naṣrānīun tawaḍḍaʾ wa-huwa lā yurīd al-wuḍūʾ thumma aslam fa-huwa mutawaḍḍiʾ (a Christian man performed the ablution without the intention of performing a ritual act; he then became a Muslim. He is [to be considered] ritually clean), Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-Shaybānī, al-Jāmiʿ al-Ṣaghīr maʿa Sharḥihi al-Nāfiʿ al-Kabīr (Karachi: Idārat al-Qurʾān wa’l-ʿUlūm al-Islāmiyya, 1987), 57; and rajul lahu miʾatān taṣaddaqa bihā baʿd al-ḥawl taṭawwuʿan lam yakun ʿalayh fīhā zakāt (a man who had 200 [silver coins] gave them away as charity after a year had lapsed; he is not required to give away alms-tax for it), idem, al-Jāmiʿ al-Kabīr, ed. A. al-Afghānī (Egypt: Maṭbaʿat al-Istiqāma, 1937), 24.

59. FN5959ʿAlāʾī, al-Majmūʿ, 1:37; Ibn Nujaym, Ashbāh, 14; Ibn al-Subkī, Ashbāh, 1:54; Suyūṭī, Ashbāh, 1:65.

60. FN6060The report in full is: “[Rewards for] deeds depend upon intention(s), and every person will be rewarded according to what he has intended; whoever emigrates for worldly benefits or in order to marry a woman, his emigration is for that for which he emigrates.” According to ḥadīth commentaries, a man emigrated in quest of a certain woman he was hoping to marry, rather than to obtain the blessing of emigrating with the Prophet; upon learning of this the prophet offered the above statement.

61. FN6161The second qāʿida is derived from the following ḥadīth: “If any one feels something in his abdomen but is doubtful whether or not anything has issued from him, he should not leave the mosque [in order to repeat his ablution] unless he hears a sound or sense a smell.” ʿAlāʾī, al-Majmūʿ, 1:70–1; Ibn Nujaym, Ashbāh, 60; Suyūṭī, Ashbāh, 1:151. 

62. FN6262The third qāʿida: Al-mashaqqa tajlub al-taysīr (hardship brings about facilitation) is based on many Qurʾānic verses, e.g. Q. 2:185, 286, 4:28, 5:3, and 94:5–6, in addition to some prophetic statements, one of which is: “Religion is very easy and whoever overburdens himself in his religion will not be able to continue in that way; so you should be moderates” (Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ, ḥadīth no. 39). The fourth qāʿida: Al-ḍarar yuzāl (harm is to be removed), is based on the prophetic dictum: “Lā ḍarar wa-lā ḍirār (no harm and no reciprocal harm)” (Ibn Māja, Sunan, ḥadīth no. 2340). Several Qurʾānic verses also forbid harm between Muslims, e.g. Q. 2:233, 65:6. http://hadith.al-islam.com/Loader.aspx?pageid=261, cf. ʿAlāʾī, al-Majmūʿ, 1:99, 120–1.

63. FN6363The dictum “Anything agreed upon by the Muslims as good is good according to God,” is attributed to the Companion Ibn Masʿūd. It appears in The Musnad of Ibn Ḥanbal (hadith no. 3589). Cf. ʿAlāʾī, al-Majmūʿ, 1:137–40. 

64. FN6464The word bi’l-maʿrūf, literally ‘in accordance with what is known’, is usually translated as ‘reasonably’. It occurs in many hadiths, including the following: Hind, the mother of Muʿāwiya, said to the Prophet “Abū Sufyān [her husband] is a miser, am I allowed to take money from him secretly?” The Prophet said to her, “You and your sons may take what is sufficient bi’l-maʿrūf” (Bukhārī, hadith no. 5049); when the Prophet’s Companion, Jābir, was asked about riding on an animal that had been set aside for sacrificing, he replied: 
I heard Allah’s Apostle say: “Ride on them bil-maʿrūf (in a reasonable manner) until you find another mount” (Muslim, hādīth no. 1324); in his farewell sermon the Prophet addressed his Companions regarding wives: “Your obligations towards them are that you should provide them with food and clothing in a reasonable manner” (Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ, hādīth no. 1218). 

65. FN6565That is to say: those who are responsible for the maintenance of a revenue-producing property (e.g. a farm) should benefit from the profit generated by the property while it is under their care. Cf. Bāḥusayn, Qawāʿid, 196; Ibn Nujaym, Ashbāh, 175; Suyūṭī, Ashbāh, 1:303.

66. FN6666ʿAlāʾī, al-Majmūʿ, 2:491; al-Bāḥusayn, Qawāʿid, 197. 

67. FN6767The imams of the schools include Abū Yūsuf and al-Shaybānī, Abū Ḥanīfa’s companions. 

68. FN6868Muḥammad al-Rugī, Naẓariyat al-Taqʿīd al-Fiqhī wa-Atharuhā fī Ikhtilāf al-Fuqahāʾ (Rabat: Kulliyat al-Ādāb wa’l-ʿUlūm al-Insāniyya, 1994), 49–51; Sadlān, Qawāʿid, 17–9.

69. FN6969Nadwī, Qawāʿid, 94.

70. FN7070Nadwī, Qawāʿid, 103; Bāḥusayn, Qawāʿid, 222, 225.

71. FN7171Muḥammad b. Idrīs al-Shāfiʿī, al-Umm (Beirut: Dār al-Maʿrifa li’l-Ṭibāʿa wa’l-Nashr, 1973), e.g. 1:53, 77, 80, 226; cf. Bāḥusayn, Qawāʿid, 311–16; Nadwī, Qawāʿid, 54–6, 99–103. 

72. FN7272Al-Shāfiʿī, al-Umm, 1:152; cf. ʿAlāʾī, al-Majmūʿ, 1:444; Ibn Nujaym, Ashbāh, 178; Suyūṭī, Ashbāh, 1:319.

73. FN7373This qāʿida is attributed to al-Shāfiʿī by Ibn al-Subkī, Ashbāh, 1:48; and Badr ‘l-Dīn al-Zarkashī, al-Manthūr fī al-Qawāʿid, ed. T. F. Maḥmūd (Kuwait: Muʾassasat al-Falayj li’l-Ṭibāʿa wa’l-Nashr, 1982), 1:120–1.

74. FN7474Cf. al-Ashqar, Tārıkh al-Fiqh al-Islāmī (Kuwait: Maktabat al-Falāḥ n.d.), 138; Bāḥusayn, Qawāʿid, 230–4; Heinrichs “Qawāʿid as a Genre,” 369, 374.

75. FN7575Bāḥusayn, Qawāʿid, 237–69.

76. FN7676Bāḥusayn, Qawāʿid, 237–69, notes.

77. FN7777ʿAlāʾī, al-Majmūʿ, 1:34–5; Suyūṭī, Ashbāh 1:61–2; Ibn Nujaym, Ashbāh 10–11. Ibn Nujaym mentions Abū Saʿd as one of the protagonists of the story rather than the narrator; this cannot be true as Abū Saʿd lived in the 5th/11th century (see Musa, A Critical, 96, n. 146) while Abū Ṭāhir lived in the 4th/10th century. It is stated in his biography that he was 
a contemporary of al-Karkhī. See Ibn Abī al-Wafā, al-Jawāhir al-Muḍiyya fī Ṭabaqāt al-Ḥanafiyya (al-Hind: Majlis Dāʾirat al-Maʿārif al-Niẓāmiyya, n. d.), 2:116–17.

78. FN7878Baḥusayn, Qawāʿid, 321–2; Heinrichs “Qawāʿid as a Genre,” 371. Heinrichs thinks that the story might have been used by later Ḥanafīs to claim that the Ḥanafīs started the genre while the Shāfiʿīs, who later became outstanding in this field, stole it from them. Heinrichs does not seem to be aware of the fact that the story was mentioned by al-ʿAlāʾī in the 8th/14th century, which was the period of the resurgence of the genre. At that time it would have been hard to know that the Shāfiʿī scholars were the most active in this area, as this role of theirs had just started, as we shall see.

79. FN7979Ibn Abī al-Wafā, al-Jawāhir, 2:116–17.

80. FN8080Nadwī, Qawāʿid, 189; Heinrichs, “Qawāʿid as a Genre,” 377. 

81. FN8181Ibid., 378. According to Bāḥusayn, the book, which was edited by an al-Azhar University student, is very similar to Dabbūsī’s text. Bāḥusayn, Qawāʿid, 329.

82. FN8282Al-Ghazālī, al-Mustaṣfā, 12.

83. FN8383Al-Qarāfī, Anwār al-Burūq fi Anwāʾ al-Furūq (Cairo: Dār al-Salām li’l-Ṭibāʿa wa’l-Nashr, 2001), 1:70.

84. FN8484Reference here is to the second qāʿida: al-yaqīn lā yazūl bi’l-shakk (certainty is not removed by doubt).

85. FN8585Dabbūsī, Taʾsīs, 80.

86. FN8686E.g. the fourth aṣl: al-aṣl annahu yuʿtabar fī al-daʿāwī maqṣūd al-khiṣmayn fī al-munāzaʿa dūn al-ẓāhir (the aṣl is that the intention of the two opponents is to be considered in legal procedures, not the apparent [form]), Dabbūsī, Taʾsīs, 80. 

87. FN8787E.g. al-aṣl annahu yufarraqu bayn ʿillat al-ḥukm wa-ḥikmatih, fa-inna ʿillatah mūjiba wa-ḥikmatah ghayr mūjiba (the aṣl is that a distinction should be made between the underlying reason of a ruling and the wisdom behind it, as the underlying reason necessitates [the ruling] but the wisdom behind it does not necessitate it), Dabbūsī, Taʾsīs, 85.

88. FN8888E.g. al-aṣl ʿind Abī Ḥanīfa anna al-shayʾ idhā ghalab ʿalayh wujūduh yujʿal ka’l-mawjūd ḥaqīqa wa in lam yūjad (the aṣl according to Abū Ḥanīfa is that anything the existence of which is predominant should be considered as actually existing even [at times] when it does not exist), Dabbūsī, Taʾsīs, 5. 

89. FN8989E.g. al-aṣl ʿind Abī Ḥanīfa anna al-muḥrim idhā akhkhar al-nusk ʿan al-waqt al-muʾaqqat lah aw qaddamah, lazimah damm (the aṣl according to Abū Ḥanīfa is: if a person who is in a state of ritual consecration performs one of the pilgrimage acts before or after its proper time, he must offer an animal as a sacrifice), Dabbūsī, Taʾsīs, 5. 

90. FN9090E.g. al-aṣl anna al-khabar al-marwī min ṭarīq al-āḥād muqqadam ʿalā al-qiyās al-ṣaḥīḥ (the aṣl is: a solitary report is to be preferred over sound analogy), Dabbūsī, Taʾsīs, 47. 

91. FN9191Dabbūsī, Taʾsīs, 2.

92. FN9292Dabbūsī, Taʾsīs, 6.

93. FN9393Dabbūsī, Taʾsīs, 3.

94. FN9494Compare the first aṣl of Karkhī, inna mā thabat bi’l-yaqīn lā yazūl bi’l-shakk to Dabbūsī’s aṣl: annah matā ʿurifa thubūt al-shayʾ min ṭarīq al-iḥāṭa wa’l-tayaqqun li-ayy maʿnā kān fa-huwa ʿalā dhālik mā lam yutayaqan bi-khilāfih. Ibid., 6, 80.

95. FN9595The aṣl has become: al-yaqīn lā yazūl bi’l-shakk.

96. FN9696Bāḥusayn, Qawāʿid, 330–5.

97. FN9797Shihāb al-Dīn al-Zanjānī, Takhrīj al-Furūʿ ʿalā al-Uṣūl ed. M. A. Al-Ṣāliḥ (Riyadh: Maktabat al-ʿAbīkān, 1999), 44–5. 

98. FN9898Bāḥusayn, Qawāʿid, 335–46; Nadwī, Qawāʿid, 192–202, 214–33, 251–9.

99. FN9999Ibid., 216; Bāḥusayn, Qawāʿid, 336–7.

100. FN100100ʿAlāʾī, al-Majmūʿ, 1:11–12.

101. FN101101For an example of qawāʿid in the form of questions see above, section: al-Suyūṭī’s Book: al-Ashbāh wa’l-Naẓāʾir fī Qawāʿid wa-Furūʿ al-Shāfiʿiyya.

102. FN102102ʿAlāʾī, al-Majmūʿ, 1:14.

103. FN103103The mention of different opinions within the school seems to be a typical feature of works on al-qawāʿid al-fiqhiyya.

104. FN104104Zarkashī, al-Manthūr, 2:356, 3:284.

105. FN105105Reference is to the qāʿida: al-mashaqqa tajlub al-taysīr, ibid., 3:169.

106. FN106106That is: al-yaqīn lā yazūl bi’l-shakk. Zarkashī has: mā thabat bi-yaqīn lā yartafiʿ illā bi-yaqīn (that which is confirmed by certainty is eliminated only by certainty), ibid., 3:135. 

107. FN107107Suyūṭī, Ashbāh, 1:281; Ibn Nujaym, Ashbāh, 142.

108. FN108108Zarkashī, 2:28, 225.

109. FN109109Zarkashī, 1:123, 337.

110. FN110110Suyūṭī, 1:286.

111. FN111111Zarkashī, 2:46.

112. FN112112This study follows the development of the genre up to the 10th/ 16th century because most of the genuine works on al-qawāʿid al-fiqhiyya were written in this period. Other Ḥanbalī treatises, which bear the word qawāʿid in their titles, either proved not to be genuine works of al-qawāʿid al-fiqhiyya or are no longer extant. Bāḥusayn, Qawāʿid, 341, 351, 354; Nadwī, Qawāʿid, 251–61.

113. FN113113The headings of these chapters are: fī takhṣīṣ al-ʿumūm bi’l-ʿurf, and yukhaṣṣ al-ʿumūm bi’l-ʿāda ʿalā al-manṣūṣ. The discussions under these two heading are to the effect that if a statement is mentioned in general terms, i.e. if it has more than one meaning, the customary usage of the terms may be employed to qualify the meaning; the third heading is: wa yukhaṣṣ al-ʿumūm bi’l-sharʿ ayḍan (that which is mentioned in general terms may also be qualified by the legal usage of the terms), Ibn Rajab, Taqrīr al-Qawāʿid wa-Taḥrīr al-Fawāʾid, ed. A. H. al-Salmān (al-Dammām: Dār Ibn’l-Qayyim, 2003), 2:555, 566, 571.

114. FN114114Cf. ʿAlāʾī, al-Majmūʿ, 1:141–59; Ibn al-Subkī, Ashbāh, 1:50–4; Ibn Nujaym, Ashbāh, 101–14. 

115. FN115115Ibn Rajab, Taqrīr, 1:4.

116. FN116116Bāḥusayn, Qawāʿid, 347–52; Heinrichs, “Qawāʿid as a Genre,” 377–82. Heinrichs HHH lists the Ḥanbalī Ibn al-Laḥḥam’s (d. 803/1401) al-Qawāʿid wa‘l-Fawāʾid al-Uṣūliyya wa mā Yataʿllaqu bihā min al-Aḥkām al-Farʿiyya, ed. M. Shāhīn (Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya, 2001); it is not listed by other researchers, perhaps for two reasons: first, it does not discuss any qawāʿid fiqhiyya; as its title suggests, it is a work of qawāʿid uṣūliyya. Second, it mentions opinions and discussions of prominent uṣūlists from all schools rather than focusing on the Ḥanbalī school.

117. FN117117Bāḥusayn, Qawāʿid, 347.

118. FN118118Bāḥusayn, Qawāʿid, 352–9.

119. FN119119Ahmed b. Yaḥyā al-Wansharīsī, Īḍāḥ al-Masālik ilā Qawāʿid al-Imām Abī ʿAbd Allah Mālik, ed. Ṣ. ʿA. al-Ghiryānī (Tripoli: Kulliyyat al-Daʿwa al-Islāmiyya, 1991).

120. FN120120Bāḥusayn, Qawāʿid, 237–69.

121. FN121121Hallaq, “Was the Gate of Ijtihād Closed?” International Journal of Middle East Studies, 16 (1984), 3–4, 20–21, 24–6; idem, “On the Origins of the Controversy about the Existence of Mujtahids and the Gate of Ijtihād,” Studia Islamica 63 (1986) esp. 133f. Both articles are reprinted in: Hallaq, Law and Legal Theory in Classical and Medieval Islam (U.S.A.; G.B., Variorum, 1995); M. Khuḍarī, Tārīkh al-Tashrīʿ al-Islāmī (Egypt: al-Maktaba al-Tijāriyya al-Kubrā, 1970), 266; M. F. al-Nabhān, al-Madkhal li’l-Tashrīʿ al-Islāmī (Beirut: Dār al-Qalam, 1977), 342, 350; M. M. Shalabī, al-Madkhal fī al-Taʿrīf bi’l-Fiqh al-Islāmī (Egypt: Maṭbaʿat Dār al-Taʾlīf, 1966), 131; Zarqā, al-Madkhal, 1:203–11; ʿA. Zaydān, al-Madkhal li-Dirāsat al-Sharīʿa al-Islāmiyya (Baghdad: al-Maṭbaʿa al-ʿArabiyya, 1964), 150. Cf. Coulson, A History of Islamic Law (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1964), 81; Schacht, Introduction to Islamic Law (Oxford University Press, 1982), 70ff. 

122. FN122122G. Makdisi, The Rise of Colleges (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1981), 121–2; idem, “The Juridical,” 24; Nabhān, Madkhal, 223–4; Shalabī, Madkhal, 132f, 144; Weiss, The Spirit of Islamic Law (Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 1998), 15.

123. FN123123Khuḍarī, Tārīkh, 240f, 252f; Nabhān, Madkhal, 223–4; Shalabī, Madkhal, 131f; Zarqā, Madkhal, 1:208–9; Zaydān, Madkhal, 148f.

124. FN124124It is believed that Shāfiʿī left an outline of the legal theory of his school in his famous Risālah.

125. FN125125Makdisi, “The Juridical,” passim.

126. FN126126Makdisi, “The Juridical,” 26; al-Bāḥusayn, al-Takhrīj ʿind al-Fuqahāʾ wa’l-Uṣūliyyīn (Riyadh: Maktabat al-Rushd, 1993), 25; M. Hītū, al-Wajīz fī Uṣūl al-Tashrīʿ al-Islāmī (Beirut: Risāla Publishers, 2006), 13ff; Ibn Khaldūn, Muqqadimat Ibn Khaldūn (Beirut: al-Maktaba al-ʿAṣriyya, 2001), 426; Khuḍarī, Tārīkh, 241; Nabhān, Madkhal, 335.

127. FN127127Bāḥusayn, Takhrīj, 24–8; M. al-Sāyis, Tārīkh al-Fiqh al-Islāmī (Damascus: Dār al-Fikr, 1999), 205–6.

128. FN128128Bāḥusayn, Takhrīj, 24–8; M. al-Sāyis, Tārīkh al-Fiqh al-Islāmī (Damascus: Dār al-Fikr, 1999), 205–6; Bāḥusayn, Takhrīj, 53; Khuḍarī, Tārīkh, 241, 243ff; Makdisi, Rise, 108–11; idem, “The Juridical,” 20; Shalabī, Madkhal, 132; Weiss, Studies, 300–1; Zarqā, Madkhal, 1:209.

129. FN129129Heinrichs, “Qawāʿid as a Genre,” 377; al-Nadwī, Qawāʿid, 189–91.

130. FN130130Hallaq “Was the Gate,” esp. 15ff, 26; Khuḍarī, Tārīkh, 240ff, 252ff; Sāyis, Tārīkh, 204ff; Schacht, Introduction, 71f; Shalabī, Madkhal, 130ff; Zarqā, Madkhal, 1:208–10; Zaydān, Madkhal, 148f. Cf. Hallaq, Authority, Continuity and Change in Islam (Cambridge: Cam­bridge University Press, 2001), 8–17.

131. FN131131Zarqā, Madkhal, 1:209; Shalabī, Madkhal, 134–6.

132. FN132132Zarqā, Madkhal, 1:209; Shalabī, Madkhal, 146; Nadwī, Qawāʿid 133–4; cf. Heinrichs “Structuring the Law,” 333. 

133. FN133133Ghazālī, Mustaṣfā, 17–8; Makdisi, “The Juridical,” 13ff., passim; K. Jaques, Authority, Conflict and the Transmission of Diversity in Medieval Islamic Law (Leiden: Brill, 2006), Chapter 6. Kevin Reinhart and Aron Zysow have both demonstrated that even the Ḥanafīs, who are believed to have taken a legal approach to their uṣūl, used theological discussions; see: Kevin Reinhart, “Like the Difference Between Heaven and Earth, Ḥanafī and Shāfiʿī Discussions of Farḍ and Wājib”, in: Weiss, Studies, 205–33; Aron Zysow, “Muʿtazilism and Māturīdisim in Ḥanafī Legal Theory” in: Weiss, Studies, 235–65. 

134. FN134134E.g. Abu’l-Ḥasan al-Māwardī (d. 450/1058), al-Ḥāwī al-Kabīr (Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya, 1999), 1:338, passim; al-Kāsānī (587/1191), Badāʾiʿ al-Ṣanāʾiʿ (Cairo: Zakariyyā ʿAlī Yusuf, 1968), 1:86, passim; Shihāb al-Dīn al-Qarāfī, al-Dhakhīrah (Beirut: Dār al-Gharb al-Islāmī, 1994), 1:180, passim; Ibn Qudama, al-Mughnī (al-Riyāḍ: Dār ʿĀlam al-Kutub, 1999), 1:17, passim. Also see: al-Sarakhsī (483/1090), al-Mabsūṭ (Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya, 2001); al-Rāfiʿī (623/1226), al-Sharḥ al-Kabīr (Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya, 1997); Nawawī (676/1277), al-Majmūʿ (Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, 2001); cf. 
Z. Maghen, “Dead Tradition: Joseph Schacht and the Origins of Popular Practice,” Islamic Law and Society 10, 3 (2003), 328–32. 

135. FN135135Ibn Khaldūn, Muqaddima, 419; A. Shalabī, Mawsūʿat al-Tārīkh al-Islāmī wa’l-Ḥaḍāra al-Islāmiyya (Cairo: Maktabat al-Nahḍa al-Miṣriyya, 1977), 5:115ff.

136. FN136136The development of the genre within the Shīʿī context is beyond the focus of this study.

137. FN137137Hasan, Tārīkh al-Islām (Beirut: Dār al-Jīl, 2001), 4:101ff, 109, 151f, 185f, 403f; Ibn Khaldūn, Muqaddima, 405, 420; ʿA. Jamāl al-Dīn, Tārīkh Miṣr min Bidāyāt al-Qarn al-Awwal al-Mīlādī Ḥattā Nihāyat al-Qarn al-ʿIshrīn (Cairo: Maktabat Madbūlī, 2006), 3:650–1 (first section); A. Muḥammad, Maẓāhir al-Ḥaḍāra fī Miṣr al-ʿUlyā fī ʿAṣr Salāṭīn al-Dawlatayn al-Ayyūbiyya wa’l-Mamlūkiyya (Egypt: Dār al-Hidāya, 1987), 247–9; Shalabī, Mawsūʿat, 5:163–93, esp. 168f, 172, 192.

138. FN138138Ibn Khaldūn, Muqaddima, 405; Muḥammad, Maẓāhir al-Ḥaḍāra fī Miṣr, 247–9; Shalabī, Mawsūʿat, 5:242–5; M. Ṭalas, Tārīkh al-ʿArab (Beirut: Dār al-Andalus li’l-Ṭibāʿa wa’l-Nashr wa’l-Tawzīʿ, n. d.), 2:174 (seventh section).

139. FN139139Ibn Khaldūn, Muqaddima, 403–5; Ibn Taghrī Birdī, Ḥawādith al-Duhūr fī Madā al-Ayyām wa’l-Shuhūr, ed. M. K. ʿIzz al-Dīn (ʿĀlam al-Kutub, n. p., n. d.), ed. Introduction 10–12; Jamāl al-Dīn, Tārīkh Miṣr, 3:650–1 (first section); Suyūṭī, Ḥusn al-Muḥāḍara fī Akhbār Miṣr wa’l-Qāhira (al-Maṭbaʿah al-Sharafiyyah n. p., 1909), 2:65–6.

140. FN140140Nadwī gives brief biographies of the compilers of the qawāʿid before discussing their works, 162–262; also see the introductions to each of the works of: ʿAlāʾī, al-Majmūʿ, 1:15–6; Ibn Nujaym, Ashbāh, 5; Ibn Rajab, Taqrīr, 1:46–9; Qarāfī, Furūq, 1:16; Ibn al-Subkī, Ashbāh, 1: ز – ك; Suyūṭī, Ashbāh, 1:8–13; Zarkashī, al-Manthūr, 1:40.

141. FN141141Another reason which, in myview, explains why the resurgence was carried out largely by Shāfiʿīs will be discussed below.

142. FN142142Ibn Khaldūn, Muqaddima, 419f.

143. FN143143Būrnū, al-Wajīz, 23–5; Bāḥusayn, Qawāʿid, 114ff; Nadwī, Qawāʿid, 327; Sadlān, Qawāʿid, 33; Zarqā, Madkhal, 2:967. 

144. FN144144For the opponents’ argument, see Nadwī, Qawāʿid, 330–1; Zarqā, Madkhal, 2:966–7. For the proponents’ argument, see Bāḥusayn, Qawāʿid, 286–90; Būrnū, Wajīz, 40–3; idem, Mawsūʿat al-Qawāʿid al-Fiqhiyya (Beirut: Muʾassasat al-Risāla li’l-Ṭibāʿa wa’l-Nashr, 2003), 1:45–8; Nadwī, Qawāʿid, 331. 

145. FN145145Al-Qarāfī, Anwār al-Burūq fi Anwāʾ al-Furūq (Cairo: Dār al-Salām li’l-Ṭibāʿa wa’l-Nashr, 2001), 1:70.

146. FN146146 Fatwā (pl. fatāwā) is a nonbinding advisory opinion to an individual questioner (mustaftī). The muftī is the jurist who provides the opinion. 

147. FN147147Text: man ḍabaṭ al-fiqh bi-qawāʿidih istaghnā ʿan ḥifẓ akthar al-juzʾiyyāt li-indirājihā fī al-kulliyāt. Qarāfī, Furuq, 1:71.

148. FN148148Ibn Subkī, Ashbāh, 1:10. 

149. FN149149Zarkashī, al-Manthūr, 1:69, 71.

150. FN150150Zarkashī, al-Manthūr, 1:66.

151. FN151151Suyūṭī, Ashbāh, 1:56–7. 

152. FN152152Ibn Nujaym, Ashbāh, 10. 

153. FN153153As mentioned in note 32, the authenticity of the letter is dubious; however, even if it does not emanate from the caliph, it still serves our purpose, as it shows that this methodology was employed in the second Islamic century, the period to which, as Serjeant asserts, “it undoubtedly belongs”. Serjeant, “The Caliph ʿUmar Letters,” 66.

154. FN154154Text: yaqīsūn al-ashbāh bi’l-ashbāh wa-yunāẓirūn al-amthāl bi’l-amthāl bi-ijmāʿin minhum wa-taslīm baʿḍihim li-baʿḍin fī dhālik. Ibn Khaldūn, Muqaddima, 424.

155. FN155155Makdisi, “The Juridical,” passim; Ghazālī, Mustaṣfā, 17–8; Makdisi, “The Juridical,” 13ff., passim; K. Jaques, Authority, Conflict and the Transmission of Diversity in Medieval Islamic Law (Leiden: Brill, 2006), Chapter 6. Kevin Reinhart and Aron Zysow have both demonstrated that even the Ḥanafīs, who are believed to have taken a legal approach to their uṣūl, used theological discussions; see: Kevin Reinhart, “Like the Difference Between Heaven and Earth, Ḥanafī and Shāfiʿī Discussions of Farḍ and Wājib”, in: Weiss, Studies, 205–33; Aron Zysow, “Muʿtazilism and Māturīdisim in Ḥanafī Legal Theory” in: Weiss, Studies, 235–65. 

156. FN156156Ibn Subkī, Ashbāh, 1:10.

157. FN157157Suyūṭī, Ashbāh, 1:393; Ibn Nujaym, Ashbāh, 360.

158. FN158158Jaques, Authority, chapter 6, esp. 222–3; Makdisi, “The Juridical,” passim, esp., 14–18; 20, 24, 26, 33.

159. FN159159Shihāb al-Dīn al-Zanjānī, Takhrīj al-Furūʿ ʿalā al-Uṣūl ed. M. A. Al-Ṣāliḥ (Riyadh: Maktabat al-ʿAbīkān, 1999), 44–5; M. Fadel, “Istiḥsān is Nine-tenths of the Law: The Puzzling Relationship of Uṣūl to Furūʿ in the Mālikī Madhhab,” in Weiss, Studies, 163 n. 6, 164; S. Jackson, “Fiction and Formalism: Toward a Functional Analysis of Uṣūl al-Fiqh,” in Weiss, Studies, 178–9; Jaques, Authority, 189, 192.

160. FN160160See Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-Baṣrī, al-Muʿtamad fī Uṣūl al-Fiqh (Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya, 1983), 2:357–9; al-Ghazālī, Mustaṣfā, 478–9; Imām al-Ḥaramayn al-Juwaynī, al-Waraqāt, on the margins of Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-Shawkānī, Irshād al-Fuḥūl ilā Taḥqīq al-Ḥaqq min ʿIlm al-Uṣūl (Egypt: Muḥammad ʿAlī Ṣabīḥ wa Awlāduh, n.d.), 240; ʿAlī b. Muḥammad al-Māwardī (d. 450/1058), Adab al-Qāḍī, ed. M. H. Al-Sarḥān (Baghdad: Maṭbaʿat al-Irshād, 1971) 1:636–7; Abū Isḥāq Ibrāhīm al-Shīrāzī (d. 476/1083), Sharḥ al-Lumaʿ, ed. ʿA. Turkī (Beirut: Dār al-Gharb al-Islāmī, 1988), 2:1033–5; cf. Hallaq, “Iftāʾ and Ijtihād in Sunnī Legal Theory: A Developmental account,” in Islamic Legal Interpretation, Muftis and their Fatwas, ed. M. K. Masud (Harvard University Press, 1996), 34–5.

161. FN161161Baṣrī, al-Muʿtamad, 2:359. 

162. FN162162ʿAlī b. Muḥammad al-Āmidī, al-Iḥkām fī Uṣūl al-Aḥkām, ed. S. Al-Jimaylī (Beirut: Dār al-Kitāb al-ʿArabī, 1984), 2:241. Al-jamʿ wa’l-farq, as pointed out above (The Relation between al-Qawāʿid al-Fiqhiyya and al-Ashbāh wa’l-Naẓāʾir), is considered by some scholars as a synonym of al-ashbāh wa’l-naẓāʾir. The point to be made is that al-Ᾱmidī here is encouraging use of al-qawāʿid al-fiqhiyya/al-ashbāh wa’l-naẓāʾir as means of ijtihād. Moreover, Qarāfī’s statement that al-qawāʿid al-fiqhiyya al-kulliyya is one of the two parts of uṣūl al-sharīʿa, and that by them methods of issuing fatwās become clearer (see above) is stated at the introduction to his work entitled al-Furūq, which is a synonym of al-jamʿ wa’l-farq; cf. Heinrichs, “Structuring the Law,” 333, 338. 

163. FN163163The first category of Ibn al-Ṣalāḥ’s classification of muftīs is only one type, which is al-muftī al-mustaqill al-muṭlaq (the absolutely independent muftī). Ibn al-Ṣalāḥ declares that this type has long been extinct. However, the only difference between the muftī of this category and the first type of muftī of the second category is that the latter chose to follow a specific imam, despite having the qualifications to be independent. The second type of the second category is a muftī who limits himself to using the principles of his imam. The muftī of the third type, as mentioned above, is not necessarily adept in uṣūl al-fiqh but he has mastery of the madhhab and its principles and can defend them. He also has the ability to derive legal assessments by analogy and preponderance. See Ibn al-Ṣalāḥ al-Shahrazūrī, Adab al-Fatwā wa-Shurūṭ al-Muftī wa-Ṣifat al-Mustaftī wa-Aḥkāmuh ed. R. F. ʿAbdu’l-Muṭṭalib (Cairo: Maktabat al-Khānjī, 1992), 35, 40–2, 46–7.

164. FN164164See the opinion of ʿIzz al-Dīn b. ʿAbd al-Sallām (d. 660/1261), cited in al-Wansharīsī, al-Miʿyār al-Muʿrib wa’l-Jāmiʿ al-Mughrib ʿan Fatāwā Ahl al-Andalus wa-Ifrīqiyā wa’l-Maghrib, ed. M. Ḥajjī (Morocco: Wizārat al-Awqāf wa’l-Shuʾūn al-Islāmiyya, 1981), 11:110; Hallaq, “Iftāʾ,” 36–8; for al-Nawawī’s (d. 676/1277) classification, which is very similar to Ibn al-Ṣalāḥ’s, see Masud, Muftīs, 334. The Mālikī Ibn al-Ḥājib (d. 646/1248) simply states that “the muftī is the faqīh.” See Mukhtaṣar al-Muntahā al-Uṣūlī (Cairo: Maṭbaʿat Kirdistān al-ʿIlmiyya, 1908), 232.

165. FN165165ʿAbd Allah b. ʿUmar al-Bayḍāwī, Minhāj al-Wuṣūl ilā ʿIlm al-Uṣūl (Cairo: Maṭbaʿat Kirdistān al-ʿIlmiyya, 1908), 106. 

166. FN166166Cited in Ibn Amīr Ḥājj, al-Taqrīr wa’l-Taḥbīr, ed. ʿA. M. ʿUmar (Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya, 1999), 3:443; al-Shawkānī, 238; trans. borrowed from Hallaq, “Iftāʾ,” 38. 

167. FN167167Sources: Brockelmann, Geschichte der Arabischen Litteratur (Leiden: Brill 1898), 372–99; ibid., Supplementband (Brill 1937), 660–91; Ḥajjī Khalīfah, Kashf al-Ẓunūnʿan Asāmī 
al-Kutub wa’l-Funūn (Istanbul: Maarif Matbaasi 1941–43); Ismāʿīl b. Muḥammad Amīn al-Baghdādī, Īḍāḥ al-Maknūn fi’l-Dhayl ʿalā Kashf al-Ẓunūn (Istanbul: Milli Egitim Basi­mevi, 1945–7), entries under Fatāwā, Wāqiʿāt, Nawāzil and Uṣūl al-Fiqh; ʿA. M. al-Marāghī, al-Fatḥ al-Mubīn fī Ṭabaqāt al-Uṣūliyīn (Egypt: 1950), 3 v. in 1, 1:231–2:101.

168. FN168168The Mālikīs seem to have made the same stipulation in the 5th/11th century (Hallaq, “Iftāʾ,” 34) and then the concession in the 7th/13th century (note 166 above). Their fatwā compilations are, therefore, much fewer than their uṣūl compilations. 

169. FN169169Sarakhsī (d. 490/1097), for example, does not allocate a chapter to the subject of iftāʾ in his text on uṣūl al-fiqh. Further, he clearly suggests that al-muftī can be a faqīh only, not a mujtahid. He states that if a layman (al-ʿāmmī) asks a muftī about an incident, he [the layman] is obliged to act in accordance with the advice of the mufti, even if there is a possibility of a mistake or untruthfulness; but considering the fact that he [the mufti] is faqīh (bi-iʿtibār fiqhih), the possibility of the right answer overrides [the possibility of a mistake], and considering the fact that he has integral personality (bi-iʿtibār ʿadālatih), the possibility of the truth is overrides [the possibility of untruthfulness], al-Sarakhsī, Uṣūl al-Sarakhsī, ed. A. Al-Afghānī (Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya, 1993), 1:328. Moreover, a century later Qāḍī Khān (d. 592/1195) states clearly, “the muftī of our companions [i.e. the Ḥanafīs], in our time, if a fatwā is sought from him, concerning which there is a transmission from our predecessors [i.e. Abū Ḥanīfa and his two disciples Abū Yūsuf and al-Shaybānī] in al-riwāyāt al-ẓāhira (lit. the clear transmission, a term that is used to refer to Ḥanafī fiqh manuals attributed to al-Shaybānī) without any disagreement between them, he should give his fatwā in accordance with what is transmitted from them. He should not disagree with them, proposing his own opinion, even if he is a competent mujtahid (yuftī bi-qawlihim wa-lā yukhālifuhum bi-raʾyh wa-in kāna mujtahidan mutqin)” (emphasis mine), Qāḍī Khān, Fatāwā Qāḍī Khān (Cairo: 1865), 3. 

170. FN170170For the importance of transmitting divergent opinions of the school, see Jaques, Authority, 42–3, 222–3, 249 n. 85.
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/content/journals/10.1163/15685195-00214p01
2014-09-22
2015-08-03

Affiliations: 1: The School of Oriental and African Studies
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