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Les juristes malikites en Occident musulman entre soumission et révolte (IIe-IXe/VIIIe-XVe siècle)

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Dans cette étude, nous montrons que l’attitude des juristes malikites vis-à-vis du prince n’était pas unifiée, ce qui nous permet de classer ces juristes en trois catégories : les révoltés, les soumis et les réservés. Si les révoltés participèrent à des révoltes et se permirent même dans certains cas de tirer l’épée contre le prince, les soumis, que les sources qualifient de ʿulamā’ al-salāṭīn, cherchèrent à rendre divers services au prince et mirent l’accent sur l’obligation des sujets de lui être soumis. La troisième catégorie de juristes porta son attention sur les devoirs du prince et tenta de se faire les porte – parole du petit peuple et de la religion. Nous rattachons cette diversité d’attitudes à plusieurs données historiques, dont la position ambiguë de Mālik b. Anas vis-à-vis du prince.
In this study, I show that the attitudes of Mālikī jurists towards the ruler fall into three categories: rebellious, submissive, and reserved: Rebelious jurists participated in revolts and, in some cases, drew their swords against the ruler; submissive jurists – identified in the sources as ʿulamāʾ al-salāṭīn – performed favors for the ruler and emphasized the obligation of his subjects to submit to him; reserved jurists focused on the duties of the ruler and attempted to give voice to the common people and religion. I link these three positions to historical data, including the ambiguous position of Mālik b. Anas vis-à-vis the ruler. 

Affiliations: 1: Ezzitouna University


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