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Wine Production, Marketing and Consumption in the Ottoman Crimea, 1520-1542

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This effort to estimate the amount of wine production in the Southern Crimea in the sixteenth century opens a window into the ways of accommodation of viticulture, wine production and wine commerce by the Ottoman Empire in a province with a predominantly Christian population. The terminology invented by the Ottomans to denote the taxes levied on viticulture reveals their highly sophisticated rationalistic approach, by which they settled the contradiction between the Islamic prohibition of wine and their practical interest in such a lucrative business, while tax rates developed on this basis granted a signi ficant tax break to Muslim viticulturers. The data of two extant Ottoman tax-registers for the Crimea show that such ingenious fiscal policy stimulated both Muslim investment in this business and conversion of local Christian peasants to Islam. Also, through data on the taxation of wine commerce, estimations of prices and tax rates for marketed wine were suggested. Cet essai d'estimer la quantité de vin produit en Crimée du sud au XVI e siècle ouvre en fait des perspectives sur l'adaptation de la viticulture, de la production et du commerce du vin par les Ottomans dans une province ayant une population principalement chretienne. La terminologie utilisée par les Ottomans pour la levée de taxe sur la viticulture révèle une approche rationnelle très so fistiquée, grace à laquelle avaint été résolue la contradiction existant entre la prohibition islamique du vin et l'intèrêt pratique pour une occupation lucrative. L'imposition qui s'est développée sur cette base accordait aux viticulteurs musulmans des allégements fiscaux signi ficatifs. Les données des deux registres de taxe existants montrent qu'une telle politique fiscale ingenieuse a apparement stimulé à la fois les investissements musulmans dans ce domaine et la conversion des paisans chrétiens locaux a l'islam. À travers les informations sur l'imposition du commerce du vin, des estimations de prix et de niveax d'imposition sur le vin mis en vente sont égalem, ent suggerés.


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