Cookies Policy
X

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Camels and Colonial Armies: The Logistics of Warfare in Central Asia in the Early 19th Century

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient

This article explores the use of camels for baggage transport by European colonial armies in the nineteenth century. It focuses in particular on two episodes: the Russian winter expedition to Khiva, and the march of the Army of the Indus into Afghanistan, both of which took place in 1839. However sophisticated their weapons and other technology, until at least the 1880s European colonial armies were forced to rely exclusively on baggage animals if they wanted to move around: railways arrived very late in the history of European expansion. In Central Asia this meant rounding up, loading, managing and feeding tens of thousands of camels, which could only be furnished by the pastoral groups who inhabited the region, who in some cases were also the objects of conquest. Camel transport placed certain structural constraints on European conquest in Central Asia: firstly it meant that the forces involved were almost always very small; secondly it prevented the launching of spontaneous or unauthorised campaigns by “men on the spot,” as every advance had to be preceded by the rounding up of the necessary baggage animals, and the creation of a budget to pay for then. Finally, the constraints imposed by camel transport ensured that British and Russian armies would never meet in Central Asia, and that a Russian invasion of India was a chimera.

Affiliations: 1: Nazarbayev Universityalexander.morrison@nu.edu.kz

Loading

Full text loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/15685209-12341355
Loading

Data & Media loading...

1. Anon [Golosov/Ivanin] A Narrative of the Russian Military Expedition to Khiva under General Perofski, in 1839. Translated from the Russian for the Foreign Department of the Government of India 1867 Calcutta Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing
2. Anon "Khivinskaia Ekspeditsiia 1839 goda" Russkaia Starina 1873 Vol 7 2 236 252
3. Anon "Pis’ma grafa V. A. Perovskago k A. Ya. Bulgakovu" Russkii Arkhiv 1878 Vol 7 301 328
4. Atkinson James The Expedition into Afghanistan. Notes and Sketches Descriptive of the Country 1842 London W. H. Allen & Co.
5. Bulliet Richard W. The Camel and the Wheel 1975 Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press
6. Congreve W. A Treatise on the General Principles, Powers, and Facility of Application of the Congreve Rocket System, as Compared with Artillery: Showing the Various Applications of this Weapon both for Sea and Land Service, and its Different Uses in the Field and in Sieges 1827 London Longman, Reese, Orme, Brown, and Green
7. Cooper Randolf G. S. The Anglo-Maratha Campaigns and the Contest for India. The Struggle for Control of the South Asian Military Economy 2003 Cambridge Cambridge University Press
8. Cross H. E. The Camel and its Diseases. Being Notes for Veterinary Surgeons and Commandants of Camel Corps 1917 London Baillière, Tindall, and Cox
9. Dal’ V. I. "Pis’ma k druziam iz Khivinskoi Ekspeditsii" Russkii Arkhiv 1867 Vol 3 4 402 431 606 639
10. Davis Jefferson Report of the Secretary of War, Communicating, in Compliance with a Resolution of the Senate of February 2, 1857, Information Respecting the Purchase of Camels for the Purposes of Military Transportation 1857 Washington A. O. P. Nicholson
11. Fayż Muḥammad Sirāj al-Tawārīkh 1912-1914 Kabul Maṭbaʿa-i Ḥurūfī Dār al-Salṭana
12. Ferret Carole Gorshenina S. , Abashin S. "Des chevaux pour l’empire. In Le Turkestan Russe: Une colonie comme les autres? " Cahiers d’Asie Centrale 17/18 2009 Tashkent and Paris IFEAC 211 253
13. Gauthier-Pilters Hilde , Dagg Anne Innis The Camel. Its Evolution, Ecology, Behaviour and Relationship to Man 1981 Chicago University of Chicago Press
14. Gommans Jos Mughal Warfare. Indian Frontiers and Highroads to Empire, 1500-1700 2002 London Routledge http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203402580
15. H. B. and B. T. B [Hilaire Belloc] The Modern Traveller 1898 London Edward Arnold
16. Hanifi Shah Mahmoud Connecting Histories in Afghanistan. Market Relations and State Formation on a Colonial Frontier 2011 Stanford Stanford University Press
17. Haughton John Colpoys Char-ee-kar and service there with the 4th Goorkha Regiment (Shah Shooja’s force) in 1841. An episode of the first Afghan War 1879 London Provost & Co.
18. Heston Alan , Hasnain H. , Hussain S. Z. , Khan R. N. "The Economics of Camel Transport in Pakistan" Economic Development and Cultural Change 1985 Vol 34 1 121 141 http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/451512
19. Hevia James The Imperial Security State. British Colonial Knowledge and Empire-Building in Asia 2012 Cambridge Cambridge University Press http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139047296
20. Hopkins B. D. The Making of Modern Afghanistan 2008 Basingstoke Palgrave Macmillan http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230228764
21. Ivanin M. , Golosov D. "Pokhod v Khivu v 1839 godu otriada russkikh voisk, pod nachal’stvom General-Ad’iutanta Perovskago" Voennyi Sbornik 1863 Vol 1 3 72 2: 309-358; 3: 3-71.
22. Ivanin M. Opisanie zimnego pokhoda v Khivu v 1839-40g 1874 St Petersburg Tip. Tov. ‘Obshchestvennaya pol’za’
23. Ivanin M. I. O voennom iskusstve i zavoevaniiakh mongol-tatar i sredne-aziiatskikh narodov pri Chingis-Khane i Tamlerane 1875 St Petersburg Tip. “Obshchestvennaia Pol’za”
24. Jain J. K. Descriptive List of Bikaner Bahis (from the 17th to 19th Century) 1982 Part I. Bikaner Rajasthan State Archives
25. Kipling Lockwood Beast and Man in India. A Popular Sketch of Indian Animals and their Relations with the People 1891 London Macmillan & Co.
26. Köhler-Rollefson I. Harris D. "The One-Humped Camel in Asia: Origin, Utilization and Methods of Dispersal" The Origins and Spread of Agriculture and Pastoralism in Eurasia 1996 London UCL Press 282 294
27. Kolff Dirk H. Naukar, Rajput & Sepoy. The Ethnohistory of the Military Labour Market in Hindustan, 1450-1850 1990 Cambridge Cambridge University Press
28. Kosyrev E. M. "Pokhod v Khivu v 1839 godu (Iz zapisok uchastnika)" Istoricheskii Vestnik 1898 Vol 8 539 540
29. Kuropatkin A. N. Alzhiriia 1877 St Petersburg Tip. V. A. Poletiki
30. Kuropatkin Zavoevanie Turkmenii (Pokhod v Akhal-Teke v 1880-1881 godu) 1899 St Petersburg V. Berezovskii
31. Leese A. S. A Treatise on the One-Humped Camel, in Health and in Disease 1927 Stamford Haynes & Son
32. Leonard Arthur Glyn The Camel. Its Uses and Management 1894 London Longmans, Green & Co.
33. Levi Scott "India, Russia, and the Transformation of the Central Asian Caravan Trade" Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 1999 Vol 42 4 519 548 http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1568520991201696
34. Levi Scott Oonk Gijsbert "Multanis and Shikarpuris. Indian Diasporas in Historical Perspective" Global Indian Diasporas: Exploring Trajectories of Migration and Theory 2007 Amsterdam Amsterdam University Press 31 63
35. Low Charles Rathbone The Afghan War 1838-42. From the Journal and Correspondence of the late Major-General Augustus Abbott 1879 London Richard Bentley
36. MacKenzie David "Expansion in Central Asia: St. Petersburg vs. the Turkestan Generals (1863-1866)" Canadian Slavic Studies 1969 Vol 3 2 286 311 http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/221023969X00402
37. Marvin Charles The Russian Advance towards India. Conversations with Skobeleff, Ignatieff, and other distinguished Russian Generals and Statesmen, on the Central Asian Question 1882 London W. H. Allen & Co.
38. Mayeur-Jaouen Catherine Faroqhi Suraiya "Badawi and his Camel: an Animal as the Attribute of a Muslim Saint" Animals and People in the Ottoman Empire 2010 Istanbul Eren 113 128
39. McChesney R. D. , Khorrami M. M. History of Afghanistan 2013 Brill Online
40. McNeill William H. "The Eccentricity of Wheels, or Eurasian Transportation in Historical Perspective" The American Historical Review 1987 Vol 92 5 1111 1126 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1868487
41. Morrison Alexander "Twin Imperial Disasters. The Invasions of Khiva and Afghanistan in the Russian and British Official Mind, 1839-1842" Modern Asian Studies 2014 Vol 48 1 253 300 http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0026749X13000036
42. Morrison Alexander "“Nechto Eroticheskoe?” “Courir après l’ombre?” Logistical Imperatives and the Fall of Tashkent, 1859-1865" Central Asian Survey 2014b Vol 33 2 153 169 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02634937.2014.909131
43. Mukasa-Mugerwa E. The Camel (Camelus dromedarius): a bibliographical review 1981 Addis Ababa ILCA
44. Parker Geoffrey The Military Revolution, 1500-1800: Military Innovation and the Rise of the West 1988 Cambridge Cambridge University Press
45. Perdue Peter C. China Marches West. The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia 2005 Cambridge, MA Belknap Press
46. Rennell James "On the Rate of Travelling, as performed by Camels: And its Application, as a Scale, to the Purposes of Geography" Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 1791 Vol 81 129 145 http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstl.1791.0010
47. Roy Kaushik "Military Synthesis in South Asia: Armies, Warfare, and Indian Society" Journal of Military History 2005 Vol 69 3 651 690 c. 1740-1849 http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/jmh.2005.0187
48. Rozhkova M. K. Ekonomicheskie sviazi Rossii so Srednei Azii 40-60e gody XIX veka 1963 Moscow Izd. AN SSSR
49. Saxena R. K. The Army of the Rajputs 1989 Udaipur Saroj Prakashan
50. Serebrennikov A. G. Sbornik materialov dlia istorii zavoevaniia Turkestanskogo Kraia 1908 Vol vol. I Tashkent Tip Shtaba Voisk Turkestanskogo Voennogo Okruga 1839g
51. Serebrennikov A. G. Sbornik materialov dlia istorii zavoevaniia Turkestanskogo Kraia 1912 Vol vol. II Tashkent Tip Shtaba Voisk Turkestanskogo Voennogo Okruga 1840g
52. Serebrennikov A. G. Turkestanskii Krai. Sbornik materialov dlia istorii ego zavoevaniia 1914 Vol vol. XVII Tashkent Tip. Turk. Voennago okruga 1864 g. Ch. I.
53. Shakespear Richmond "A Personal Narrative of a Journey from Heraut to Ourenbourg, on the Caspian [sic] in 1840" Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine 1842 Vol 51 691 720
54. Steensgaard Niels The Asian Trade Revolution of the Seventeenth Century: The East India Companies and the Decline of the Caravan Trade 1973 Chicago Chicago University Press
55. Steevens G. W. With Kitchener to Khartoum 1898 Edinburgh Wm Blackwood & Sons
56. Suri Lala Sohan Lal Suri V. S. An outstanding original source of Punjab History, Umdat-ut-Tawarikh. Daftar III, Parts i-v. Chronicle of the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh 1831-1839 A. D. 1961 Delhi S. Chand & Co.
57. Tuchscherer Michel Faroqhi Suraiya "Some Reflections on the Place of the Camel in Ottoman Egypt" Animals and People in the Ottoman Empire 2010 Istanbul Eren 177 181
58. Wagner Kim A. Thuggee. Banditry and the British in Early Nineteenth-Century India 2007 Basingstoke Palgrave Macmillan
59. Yapp M. E. "Disturbances in Western Afghanistan" Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 1963 Vol 26 2 288 313 1839-41 http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0041977X00064685
60. Yapp M. E. Strategies of British India. Britain, Iran and Afghanistan, 1798-1850 1980 Oxford Clarendon Press
61. Yousef M. K. , Webster M. E. D , Yousef O. M. "Energy Costs of Walking in Camels" Camelus Dromedarius. Physiological Zoology 1989 Vol 62 5 1080 1088
62. Zhanaev B. T. " Istoriia Kazakhstana v russkikh istochnikakh XVI-XX vekov " O pochetneishikh i vliiatel’neishikh ordyntsakh 2006 Vol vol. VIII ch. 2 Almaty Daik-Press
http://brill.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1163/15685209-12341355
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/15685209-12341355
2014-09-26
2018-04-25

Sign-in

Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
     
    Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation