Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

The ʿAmārāt, their Sheikh, and the Colonial State: Patronage and Politics in a Partitioned Middle East

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient

How did the era of colonial divide-and-rule in the Arab East—the creation of the new mandates of Great Britain and France—appear to the Bedouin communities who lived through it? This article examines this important period of change from the perspective of a prominent Bedouin sheikh, Fahd Ibn Hadhdhāl of the ʿAmārāt (ʿAnaza). Moving between the southern and western frontiers of Iraq, the ʿAmārāt have seldom been the focus of historical enquiry, but their attempts to navigate the disturbed interwar landscape offer a window onto the changing prospects for Bedouin groups across the Arab East. Building on a close reading of colonial sources, the article reveals how important social, economic, and political dynamics of Bedouin life persisted to shape relations within the new mandates, as the ʿAmārāt, their sheikh, and the young colonial state all jostled for influence and authority.

Affiliations: 1: University of


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. Abdul-Jabar Faleh , Dawod Hosham Tribes and Power: Nationalism and Ethnicity in the Middle East 2003 London Saqi Books
2. Alon Yoav Singer Amy , Neumann Christoph K. , Somel Selçuk Akşin "Silent Voices within the Elites: The Social Biography of a Modern Shaykh" Untold Histories of the Middle East: Recovering Voices from the 19th and 20th Centuries 2011 Abingdon Routledge 91 105
3. Ashkenazi Touvia "The ʿAnazah Tribes" Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 1948 Vol 4 222 239
4. Batatu Hanna The Old Social Classes and the Revolutionary Movements of Iraq: A Study of Iraq’s Old Landed and Commercial Classes and of Its Communists, Baʿthists, and Free Officers 1978 Princeton NJ Princeton University Press
5. Bell Gertrude The Desert and the Sown 1907 New York E.P. Dutton
6. Bonté Pierre , Conte Edouard , Hamès Constant , Cheikh Adbel Wedoud Ould Al-ansâb: La quête des origines. Anthropologie historique de la société tribale arabe 1991 Paris Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l’Homme
7. Bray Norman A Paladin of Arabia: The Biography of Brevet Lieut.-Colonel G.E. Leachman 1936 London J. Heritage
8. Büssow Johann "Negotiating the Future of a Bedouin Polity in Mandatory Syria: Political Dynamics of the Sbaʿa-ʿAbada during the 1930s" Nomadic Peoples 2011 Vol 15 70 95 [Crossref]
9. Büssow Johann Prager. Münster Laila "Bedouin Historiography in the Making: An Indigenous History of the Hasana Tribe in Syria" Repräsentationen von Nomaden und Sesshaften in der “Alten Welt,” 2011 Lit-Verlag 160 183
10. Chatty Dawn Nomadic Societies in the Middle East and North Africa: Entering the 21st Century 2006 Leiden Brill
11. Cole Donald "Where Have the Bedouin Gone?" Anthropological Quarterly 2003 Vol 76 235 267 [Crossref]
12. Cornwallis Kinahan , Hogarth David G. , Lawrence Thomas Edward , Garland Herbert G. The Arab Bulletin: Bulletin of the Arab Bureau in Cairo, 1916-1919 1986 Gerrards Cross Archive Editions [1916-19]
13. Crone Patricia "Tribes and States in the Middle East" Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 1993 Vol 3 353 376 [Crossref]
14. De Gaury Gerald Ingham Bruce Review of the ʿAnizah Tribe 2005 Beirut Kutub
15. Dickson Harold R.P. Kuwait and Her Neighbours 1956 London Allen and Unwin
16. Dodge Toby Inventing Iraq: The Failure of Nation Building and a History Denied 2003 New York Columbia University Press
17. Fletcher Robert S.G. British Imperialism and ‘The Tribal Question’: Desert Administration and Nomadic Societies in the Middle East, 1919-1936 2015 Oxford Oxford University Press [Crossref]
18. Franz Kurt "The Bedouin in History or Bedouin History?" Nomadic Peoples 2011 Vol 15 11 53 [Crossref]
19. Glubb John "Air and Ground Forces in Punitive Expeditions." Journal of the Royal United Services Institute 1926 Vol 71 777 784 [Crossref]
20. Glubb John War in the Desert: An R.A.F. Frontier Campaign 1960 London Hodder and Stoughton
21. Glubb John Arabian Adventures: Ten Years of Joyful Service 1983 London Cassell
22. Hogarth David G. "Obituary: Lieut.-Colonel G.E. Leachman" The Geographical Journal 1920 Vol 56 325 326 [Crossref]
23. Ingham Bruce Bedouin of Northern Arabia: Traditions of the Āl-Ḍhafīr 1986 New York KPI
24. Jamali Mohammed F. The New Iraq: Its Problem of Bedouin Education 1934 New York Teachers College, Columbia
25. Khalidi Rashid Méouchy Nadine , Sluglett Peter "Concluding Remarks" The British and French Mandates in Comparative Perspective 2004 Leiden Brill 695 704
26. Khoury Philip S. , Kostiner Joseph Tribes and State Formation in the Middle East 1991 London I.B. Tauris
27. Kostiner Joseph Dann Uriel "Britain and the Northern Frontier of the Saudi State, 1922-1925" The Great Powers in the Middle East, 1919-1939 1988 London Holmes & Meier 29 48
28. Kostiner Joseph The Making of Saudi Arabia, 1916-1936: From Chieftaincy to Monarchical State 1993 New York Oxford University Press
29. Lancaster William The Rwala Bedouin Today 1981 Cambridge Cambridge University Press
30. Leachman Gerard E. "A Journey in North-Eastern Arabia" The Geographical Journal 1911 Vol 37 265 74 [Crossref]
31. Leachman Gerard E. "A Journey Through Central Arabia" The Geographical Journal 1914 Vol 43 500 520 [Crossref]
32. Leatherdale Clive Britain and Saudi Arabia, 1925-1939: The Imperial Oasis 1986 London Frank Cass
33. Leder Stefan , Streck Bernhard Shifts and Drifts in Nomad-Sedentary Relations 2005 Wiesbaden L. Reichert
34. Lorimer John G. Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, ʿOman, and Central Arabia 1908-15 Calcutta Supt. Govt. Printing
35. Méouchy Nadine , Sluglett Peter The British and French Mandates in Comparative Perspective 2004 Leiden Brill
36. Migdal Joel Migdal J. "Mental Maps and Virtual Checkpoints: Struggles to Construct and Maintain State and Social Boundaries" Boundaries and Belonging: States and Societies in the Struggle to Shape Identities and Local Practices 2004 Cambridge Cambridge University Press [Crossref]
37. Mundy Martha , Musallam Basim The Transformation of Nomadic Society in the Arab East 2000 Cambridge Cambridge University Press
38. Neep Daniel Occupying Syria under the French Mandate: Insurgency, Space and State Formation 2012 Cambridge Cambridge University Press [Crossref]
39. Nelson Cynthia The Desert and the Sown: Nomads in the Wider Society 1973 Berkeley Institute of International Studies, University of California
40. Omissi David Air Power and Colonial Control: The Royal Air Force, 1919-1939 1990 Manchester Manchester University Press
41. Philby Harry S.B. The Heart of Arabia: A Record of Travel and Exploration 1922 London Constable
42. Pool David "From Elite to Class: The Transformation of Iraqi Leadership, 1920-1939" International Journal of Middle East Studies 1980 Vol 12 331 350 [Crossref]
43. Prothero George W. A Handbook of Arabia 1920 London HMSO
44. Raswan Carl R. "Tribal Areas and Migration Lines of the North Arabian Bedouins" Geographical Review 1930 Vol 20 494 502 [Crossref]
45. Rogan Eugene , Tell Tariq Village, Steppe and State: The Social Origins of Modern Jordan 1994 London British Academic Press
46. Schoel Thorsten "The Hsana’s Revenge: Syrian Tribes and Politics in the Shaykh’s Story" Nomadic Peoples 2011 Vol 15 96 113 [Crossref]
47. Scoville Sheila A. Gazetteer of Arabia: A Geographical and Tribal History of the Arabian Peninsula 1979 Graz Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt
48. Shryock Andrew J. "Writing Oral History in Tribal Jordan: Developments on the Margins of Literature Culture" Anthropology Today 1995 Vol 11 3 5 [Crossref]
49. Shryock Andrew J. Nationalism and the Genealogical Imagination: Oral History and Textual Authority in Tribal Jordan 1997 Berkeley University of California Press
50. Singer Amy , Neumann Christoph , Somel Selcuk Askin Untold Histories of the Middle East: Recovering Voices from the 19th and 20th Centuries 2011 Abingdon Routledge
51. Sluglett Peter Britain in Iraq: Contriving King and Country 2007 London I.B. Tauris
52. Tamari Salim Year of the Locust: A Soldier’s Diary and the Erasure of Palestine’s Ottoman Past 2011 Berkeley University of California Press
53. Tauber Eliezer "The Struggle for Dayr al-Zur: The Determination of Borders Between Syria and Iraq" International Journal of Middle East Studies 1991 Vol 23 361 385 [Crossref]
54. Tejel Gorgas Jordi , Scalbert-Yücel Clémence "Introduction" Études Rurales 2011 Vol 186 9 20
55. Tell Tariq Heydemann Steven "Guns, Gold and Grain: War and Food Supply in the Making of Transjordan" War, Institutions and Social Change in the Middle East 2000 Berkeley University of California Press 33 58
56. Thomas Martin Empires of Intelligence: Security Services and Colonial Disorder after 1914 2008 Berkeley University of California Press
57. Tidrick Kathryn Heart-Beguiling Araby: The English Romance with Arabia 1981 London I.B. Tauris
58. Toth Anthony The Transformation of a Pastoral Economy: Bedouin and States in Northern Arabia, 1850-1950 2000 PhD diss. Oxford University
59. Toth Anthony "Conflict and a Pastoral Economy: The Costs of Akhwan Attacks on Tribes in Iraq, 1922-1929" Critique: Critical Middle Eastern Studies 2002 Vol 11 201 227 [Crossref]
60. Velud Christian Mundy Martha , Musallam Basim "French Mandate Policy in the Syrian Steppe" The Transformation of Nomadic Society in the Arab East 2000 Cambridge Cambridge University Press 63 81
61. Wilson Arnold T. Mesopotamia, 1917-1920: A Clash of Loyalties: A Personal and Historical Record 1931 London Oxford University Press
62. Wilson Arnold T. , Bell Gertrude Review of the Civil Administration of Mesopotamia 1920 London HMSO

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation