Cookies Policy
X

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

The Chronology of Roman Trade in the Indian Ocean from Augustus to Early Third Century ce

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient

The archaeological and numismatic evidence for Roman trade in the Indian Ocean from the Augustan annexation of Egypt up to the early third century ceshows that the most intense period of contact and exchange was in the late first century ce. The arguments presented here challenge two major positions, which assert either a peak during the Julio-Claudian period or a continuing intensity of contact until at least the late second century ce.

Affiliations: 1: University of Wales Trinity Saint David m.cobb@uwtsd.ac.uk

Loading

Full text loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/15685209-12341378
Loading

Data & Media loading...

1. Abraham Shinu A. Tomber Roberta , Blue Lucy , Abraham Shinu "Strategies for Surface Documentation at the Early Historic Site of Pattanam, Kerala: The Malabar Region Archaeological Survey" Migration, Trade and People: Part 1 2009 London 14 28
2. Agarwala Prakash N. The History of Indian Business 1985 New Delhi Vikas
3. Alston Richard Soldiers and Society in Roman Egypt 1995 London Routledge http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203272633
4. Alston Richard Alston Richard , Lieu Samuel N.C. "Fraying Round the Edges: Models of Change on the Margins" Aspects of the Roman East 2007 Brepols Sydney 1 32
5. Bagnall Roger S. , Johnson Janet H. , Gragg Gene B. , Hammon Philip C. , Dols Michael , el-Nahal Galal , Killean Carolyn G. , Bates Michael , Whitcomb Donald S. Whitcomb Donald S. , Johnson Janet H. "Epigraphy" Quseir al-Qadim 1978: Preliminary Report 1979 Cairo American Research Center in Egypt 243 249
6. Bagnall Roger S. , Helms Christina , Verhoogt Arthur M.F.W. Documents from Berenike 2000 Vol Vol. 1 Bruxelles Fondation Égyptologique Reine Élisabeth
7. Barnard Hans , Rose Pamela J. Sidebotham Steven E. , Wendrich Willamina Z. "Eastern Desert Ware from Berenike and Kab Marfuʾa" Berenike 1999/2000 Report 2007 Los Angeles Cotsen Institute of Archaeology 183 199
8. Begley Vimala Begley Vimala "Chronology" The Ancient Port of Arikamedu: New Excavations and Researches 1989-1992 2004 Vol Vol. 2 Paris École Française d’Extrême-Orient 1 16
9. Berghaus Peter Jha Amal K. "Roman Coins from India and Their Imitations" Coinage, Trade and Economy 1991 Nashik Indian Institute of Research in Numismatic Studies 108 121
10. Berghaus Peter Jha Amal K. MacDowall David W. , Jha Amiteshwar "Evidence of Die-Links of Roman Coins and Their Indian Imitation Found in India" Foreign Coins Found in the Indian Sub-Continent 2004 Nashik Indian Institute of Research in Numismatic Studies 53 54
11. Bernard André De Koptos à Kosseir Leiden Brill
12. Bernstein William J. A Splendid Exchange 2008 New York Atlantic Monthly Press
13. Blue Lucy "Locating the Harbour: Myos Hormos/Quseir al-Qadim: A Roman and Islamic Port on the Red Sea Coast of Egypt" International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 2007 Vol 36 2 265 281 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-9270.2007.00151.x
14. Blue Lucy Peacock David , Blue Lucy , Whitewright Julian "The Amphora Wharf" Myos Hormos: Quseir al-Qadim Roman and Islamic Ports on the Red Sea 2011 Vol Vol. 2 Oxford Archaeopress 35 42 BAR International Series 2286
15. Blue Lucy , Whitewright Julian , Thomas Ross Peacock David , Blue Lucy , Whitewright Julian "Ships and Ships’ Fittings" Myos Hormos: Quseir al-Qadim Roman and Islamic Ports on the Red Sea 2011 Vol Vol. 2 Oxford Archaeopress 179 209 barInternational Series 2286
16. Bolin Sture State and Currency in the Roman Empire to 300 ad 1958 Stockholm Almqvist & Wiksell
17. Bopearachchi Osmund Ray Himanshu P. , Salles Jean-François "Seafaring in the Indian Ocean: Archaeological Evidence from Sri Lanka" Tradition and Archaeology 1996 New Delhi Manohar 59 77
18. Bowersock Glen W. Roman Arabia 1983 Cambridge MA Harvard University Press
19. Bowman Alan , Wilson Andrew Bowman Alan , Wilson Andrew "Quantifying the Roman Economy: Integration, Growth, Decline?" Quantifying the Roman Economy 2009 Oxford Oxford University Press 3 84 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199562596.003.0001
20. Brancaccio Pia , Liu Xinru "Dionysus and Drama in the Buddhist Art of Gandhara" Journal of Global History 2009 Vol 4 2 219 244 http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1740022809003131
21. Brun Jean-Pierre Cuvigny Hélène "Chronologie de l’équipement de la route à l’époque gréco-romaine" Le route de Myos Hormos 2006a Vol Vol. 1 Cairo Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale 187 205
22. Brun Jean-Pierre Cuvigny Hélène "Méthodes et conditions de fouille des fortins et des dépotoirs ou les affres d’un Gallo-Romain en Égypte" Le route de Myos Hormos 2006b Vol Vol. 1 Cairo Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale 61 71
23. Bülow-Jacobsen Adam , Cuvigny Hélène , Fournet Jean-Luc "The Identification of Myos Hormos: New Papyrological Evidence" Le Bulletin de I’Institut français d’archéologie orientale 1994 Vol 94 27 42
24. Burnett Andrew Bopearachchi Osmund , Weerakkody Don P.M. "Roman Coins from India and Sri Lanka" Origin, Evolution and Circulation of Foreign Coins in the Indian Ocean 1998 Sri Lanka Manohar 179 189
25. Cambon Pierre Hierbert Fredrik , Cambon Pierre "Bagram: Alexandria of the Caucasus, Capital of the Kushan Empire" Afghanistan: Crossroads of the Ancient World 2011 London British Museum Press 145 209
26. Cappers René T.J. Roman Foodprints at Berenike 2006 Los Angeles Cotsen Institute of Archaeology
27. Carson Robert A.G. Coins of the Roman Empire 1990 London Routledge
28. Casson Lionel "P. Vindob G 40822 and the Shipping of Goods from India" Bulletin of the American Society of Papyrologists 1986 Vol 23 3-4 73 79
29. Casson Lionel The Periplus Maris Erythraei: Text with Introduction, Translation, and Commentary 1989 Princeton Princeton University Press
30. Chami Felix A. "Further Archaeological Research on Mafia Island" Azania 2000 Vol 35 1 214 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00672700009511605
31. Cherian P.J. "Pattanam to Challenge Euro-Centric Notions and Help Rewrite the History of Indian Ocean Trade" Journal of Indian Ocean Archaeology 2009-10 Vol 6 153 158
32. Cherian P.J. , Ravi Prasad G.V. , Dutta Koushik , Ray Dinesh K. , Selvakumar Veerasamy , Shajan K.P. "Chronology of Pattanam: A Multi-Cultural Port Site on the Malabar Coast" Current Science 2009 Vol 97 2 236 240
33. Cobb Matthew A. Roman Trade in the Indian Ocean during the Principate 2011 Swansea University PhD diss.
34. Copeland Penny Peacock David , Blue Lucy , Whitewright Julian "Metal and Metal Working" Myos Hormos: Quseir al-Qadim Roman and Islamic Ports on the Red Sea 2011 Vol Vol. 2 Oxford Archaeopress 89 120 barInternational Series 2286
35. Copeland Penny , Thomas Ross , Masser Paul , Philips James , van Rengen Wilfried Peacock David , Blue Lucy "The Roman Town" Myos Hormos: Quseir al-Qadim Roman and Islamic Ports on the Red Sea 2006 Vol Vol. 1 Oxford Oxbow Books 116 154
36. Curtin Philip D. Cross-Cultural Trade in World History 1984 Cambridge Cambridge University Press http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511661198
37. Cuvigny Hélène Ostraca de Krokodilô. La correspondance militaire et sa circulation 2005 Cairo Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale
38. Cuvigny Hélène Cuvigny Hélène "Introduction" Le route de Myos Hormos 2006a Vol Vol. 1 Cairo Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale 1 35
39. Cuvigny Hélène Cuvigny Hélène "Les documents écrits de la route de Myos Hormos à l’ époque gréco-romaine (inscriptions, graffiti, papyrus, ostraca)" Le route de Myos Hormos 2006b Vol Vol. 2 Cairo Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale 265 294
40. Cuvigny Hélène Cuvigny Hélène "Le fonctionnement du réseau" Le route de Myos Hormos 2006c Vol Vol. 2 Cairo Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale 295 359
41. Cuvigny Hélène Le route de Myos Hormos 2006d Vol vol. 1 Cairo Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale
42. Cuvigny Hélène Le route de Myos Hormos 2006e Vol Vol. 2 Cairo Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale
43. Cribb Joe MacDowall David W. , Sharma Savita , Garg Sanjay "Numismatic Evidence for the Date of the “Periplus.”" Indian Numismatics, History, Art, and Culture 1992 Delhi Agam Kala Prakashan 131 145
44. Deloche Jean Ray Himanshu P. , Salles Jean-François "Iconographic Evidence on the Development of Boat and Ship Structures in India (2nd c. bc-15th c. ad): A New Approach" Tradition and Archaeology 1996 New Delhi Manohar 199 224
45. De Romanis Federico De Romanis Federico , Tchernia André "Rome and the Notiaof India: Relations Between Rome and Southern India from 30 bcto the Flavian Period" Crossings 1997 New Delhi Manohar 80 160
46. De Romanis Federico De Romanis Frederico , Sorda Sara " Aureiafter the Trade: Western Taxes and Eastern Gifts" Dal denarius al dinar: L’Oriente e la moneta romana 2006 Rome Istituto Italiano di Numismatica 55 87
47. De Romanis Federico "Julio-Claudian Denariiand Aureiin Campania and India. Annali dell’Istituto Italiano di Numismatica " 2012 Vol 58 161 192
48. Dridi Hédi Strauch Ingo "Appendix ii: Radiocarbon Analysis of Splinters from the Wooden Tablet" Foreign Sailors on Socotra 2012 Bremen Hempen 461 462
49. Düing Walter The Monsoon Regime of the Currents in the Indian Ocean 1970 Honolulu East-West Centre
50. Duncan-Jones Richard Money and Government in the Roman Empire 1994 Cambridge Cambridge University Press http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511552632
51. Eide Tormud , Hägg Tomas , Pierce Richard Holton , Török Laszlo Fontes Historiae Nubiorum 1996 Vol Vol. 2 Bergen University of Bergen
52. Fraser Peter M. Ptolemaic Alexandria 1972 Vol Vols. 1 and 2 Oxford Clarendon Press
53. Fournet Jean-Luc. Cuvigny Hélène "Langues, écritures et culture dans les praesidia " Le route de Myos Hormos 2006 Vol Vol. 2 Cairo Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale 427 500
54. Gorea Maria Strauch Ingo "Palmyra and Socotra" Foreign Sailors on Socotra 2012a Bremen Hempen 447 457
55. Gorea Maria Strauch Ingo "The Sea and Inland Trade of Palmyra" Foreign Sailors on Socotra 2012b Bremen Hempen 463 485
56. Gupta Chandrashekhar MacDowall David W. , Jha Amiteshwar "Foreign Coins and Imitations Used for Ornamentation" Foreign Coins Found in the Indian Sub-Continent 2004 Nashik Indian Institute of Research in Numismatic Studies 115 120
57. Gupta Parmeshwari L. Jha Amal K. "Coins in Rome’s Indian Trade" Coinage, Trade and Economy 1991 Nashik Indian Institute of Research in Numismatic Studies 122 137
58. Gupta Sunil , Williams David , Peacock David "Dressel 2-4 Amphorae and Roman Trade with India: The Evidence from Nevasa" South Asian Studies 2001 Vol 17 7 18 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02666030.2001.9628589
59. Gurukkal Rajan "Classical Indo-Roman Trade: A Historiographical Reconsideration" Indian Historical Review 2013 Vol 40 181 206 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0376983613499670
60. Habicht Christian Buraseis Kostas , Stefanou Mary , Thompson Dorothy J. "Eudoxus of Cyzicus and Ptolemaic Exploration" The Ptolemies, the Sea and the Nile 2013 Cambridge Cambridge University Press 197 206 http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139519649.015
61. Healy John F. "Palmyra and the Arabian Gulf Trade" Aram 1996 Vol 8 1 33 37 http://dx.doi.org/10.2143/ARAM.8.1.2002183
62. Helm Richard , Crowther Alison , Shipton Ceri , Tengeza Amini , Fuller Dorian , Boivin Nicole "Exploring Agriculture, Interaction and Trade on the Eastern African Littoral: Preliminary Results from Kenya" Azania 2012 Vol 47 1 39 63 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0067270X.2011.647947
63. Herbert Sharon C. , Berlin Andrea Herbert Sharon C. , Berlin Andrea "The Excavation: Occupation History and Ceramic Assemblages" Excavations at Coptos (Qift) In Upper Egypt, 1987-1992 2003 Portsmouth RI Journal of Roman Archaeology 13 156 Suppl. Ser. 53 Journal of Roman Archaeology
64. Hierbert Fredrik Hierbert Fredrik , Cambon Pierre "The Lost Worlds of Afghanistan" Afghanistan: Crossroads of the Ancient World 2011 London British Museum Press 55 64
65. Horton Mark C. Reade Julian "Early Maritime Trade and Settlement along the Coast of Eastern Africa" The Indian Ocean in Antiquity 1996 London Kegan Paul International 439 459
66. Hourani George F. Arab Seafaring in the Indian Ocean in Ancient and Early Medieval Times 1995 Princeton Princeton University Press revised and expanded by John Carswell
67. Howgego Christopher Bowman Alan , Wilson Andrew "Some Numismatic Approaches to Quantifying the Roman Economy" Quantifying the Roman Economy 2009 Oxford Oxford University Press 287 295 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199562596.003.0014
68. Kennedy David "The Composition of a Military Work Party in Roman Egypt ( ils2483: Coptos)" Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 1985 Vol 71 156 160 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3821721
69. Klemm Rosemarie , Klemm Dietrich Gold and Gold Mining in Ancient Egypt and Nubia 2013 Heidelberg Springer http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-22508-6
70. Kulke Hermann , Rothermund Dietmar A History of India 1986 London Routledge
71. Lebedeva Elena "India in Roman External Trade: The Evidence of Numismatics" unescoInternational Association for the Study of the Cultures of Central Asia Information Bulletin 1988 Vol 14 45 58
72. Lindsay William S. History of Merchant Shipping and Ancient Commerce 1874 Vol Vol. 1 New York AMS Press
73. Lombardi Alessandra , Buffa Vittoria , Pavan Alexia Avanzini Alessandra "Small Finds" A Port in Arabia: Between Rome and the Indian Ocean (3rd c. bc-5th c. ad): Khor Rori Report 2 2008 Rome L’Erma di Bretschneider 317 475
74. MacDowall David W. Jha Amal K. "Indian Imports of Roman Silver Coinage" Coinage, Trade and Economy 1991 Nashik Indian Institute of Research in Numismatic Studies 145 163
75. MacDowall David W. Ray Himanshu P. , Salles Jean-François "The Evidence of the Gazetteer of Roman Artefacts in India" Tradition and Archaeology 1996 New Delhi Manohar 79 95
76. MacDowall David W. MacDowall David W. , Jha Amiteshwar "Foreign Coins Found in India: In View of the Monetary Systems Operating in the Countries of their Origin" Foreign Coins Found in the Indian Sub-Continent 2004a Nashik Indian Institute of Research in Numismatic Studies 9 14
77. MacDowall David W. MacDowall David W. , Jha Amiteshwar "The Indo-Roman Metal Trade" Foreign Coins Found in the Indian Sub-Continent 2004b Nashik Indian Institute of Research in Numismatic Studies 39 44
78. Mahadevan Iravatham Sidebotham Steven E. , Wendrich Willamina Z. "Tamil-Brahmi Graffito" Berenike 1995 Preliminary Report 1996 Leiden Centre for Non-Western Study 205 208
79. Mattingly Harold Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum 1923 Vol Vol. 1 London Published by the Trustees of the British Museum
80. Mayerson Philip "The Port of Clysma (Suez) in Transition from Roman to Arab Rule" Journal of Near Eastern Studies 1996 Vol 55 2 119 126 http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/373802
81. Mazzarino Santo De Romanis Federico , Tchernia André "On the Name of the Hipalus (Hippalus) Wind in Pliny" Crossings 1997 New Delhi Manohar 72 79
82. McGrail Seán Boats of the World from the Stone Age to Medieval Times 2004 Oxford Oxford University Press
83. McLaughlin Raoul Rome and the Distant East 2010 London Continuum
84. Mehendale Sanjyot Hierbert Fredrik , Cambon Pierre "Bagram: At the Heart of the Silk Roads" Afghanistan: Crossroads of the Ancient World 2011 London British Museum Press 131 143
85. Meredith David "The Roman Remains in the Eastern Desert of Egypt" The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 1952 Vol 38 94 111 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3855499
86. Meredith David "The Roman Remains in the Eastern Desert of Egypt (Continued)" The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 1953 Vol 39 95 106 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3855316
87. Meyer Carol Whitcomb Donald S. , Johnson Janet H. "Large and Small Storerooms of the Roman Villa" Quseir al-Qadim 1980: Preliminary Report 1982 Malibu American Research Center in Egypt 201 213
88. Meyer Carol " Glass from Quseir al-Qadim and the Indian Ocean Trade " Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization 1992 Vol 53 Chicago Oriental Institute of The University of Chicago
89. Meyer Jørgen C. Seland Eivind H. "Roman Coins as a Source for Roman Trading Activities in the Indian Ocean" The Indian Ocean in the Ancient Period 2007 Oxford Archaeopress 59 68
90. Millar Fergus Austin Michel , Harries Jill , Smith Christopher "Caravan Cities: The Roman Near East and Long-Distance Trade by Land" Modus Operandi: Essays in Honour of Geoffrey Rickman 1998 London University of London, Institute of Classical Studies 122 137
91. Miller James I. The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire 29 bcto ad641 1969 London Oxford University Press
92. Moore Karl , Lewis David Birth of the Multinational: 2000 Years of Ancient Business 1999 Copenhagen Copenhagen Business School Press
93. Mooren Leon "The Date of sb v8036 and the Development of the Ptolemaic Maritime Trade with India" Ancient Society 1972 Vol 3 127 133
94. Mukherjee Bratindra N. MacDowall David W. , Jha Amiteshwar "Some Aspects of Foreign Coins in the Indian Subcontinent" Foreign Coins Found in the Indian Sub-Continent 2004 Nashik Indian Institute of Research in Numismatic Studies 1 8
95. Murray George W. , Warmington Eric H. "Trogodytica: The Red Sea Littoral in Ptolemaic Times" Geographical Journal 1967 Vol 133 1 24 33 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1794358
96. Parry John J. The Seaports of Graeco-Roman Egypt: A Study of Their Positioning, Trade and Development 1999 University of Liverpool PhD diss.
97. Peacock David "The Site of Myos Hormos: A View from Space" Journal of Roman Archaeology 1993 Vol 6 226 232
98. Peacock David Peacock David , Blue Lucy , Whitewright Julian "Ceramic Lamps" Myos Hormos: Quseir al-Qadim Roman and Islamic Ports on the Red Sea 2011a Vol Vol. 2 Oxford Archaeopress 47 56 BAR International Series 2286
99. Peacock David Peacock David , Blue Lucy , Whitewright Julian "Ptolemaic and Roman Coins" Myos Hormos: Quseir al-Qadim Roman and Islamic Ports on the Red Sea 2011b Vol Vol. 2 Oxford Archaeopress 85 97 BAR International Series 2286
100. Peacock David , Blue Lucy Myos Hormos: Quseir al-Qadim Roman and Islamic Ports on the Red Sea 2006a Vol Vol. 1 Oxford Oxbow Books
101. Peacock David , Blue Lucy "The Excavations: Overview" Myos Hormos: Quseir al-Qadim Roman and Islamic Ports on the Red Sea 2006b Vol Vol. 1 Oxford Oxbow Books 174 177
102. Peacock David , Blue Lucy , Whitewright Julian Myos Hormos: Quseir al-Qadim Roman and Islamic Ports on the Red Sea 2011 Vol Vol. 2 Oxford Archaeopress BAR International Series 2286
103. Peacock David , Blue Lucy , Glazier Darren Peacock David , Blue Lucy "Review, Discussion and Conclusion" The Ancient Red Sea Port of Adulis, Eritrea 2007 Oxford Oxbow Books 125 134
104. Peacock David , Blue Lucy , Whittaker Paula , Walsh Michael , Thomas Ross Peacock David , Blue Lucy "The Roman Harbour" Myos Hormos: Quseir al-Qadim Roman and Islamic Ports on the Red Sea 2006 Vol Vol. 1 Oxford Oxbow Books 67 94
105. Peacock David , Nina Ismini , Kenrick Philip , Poblome Jeroen , Tomber Roberta , Romanus Kerlijne Peacock David , Blue Lucy "Pottery from the Survey" The Ancient Red Sea Port of Adulis, Eritrea 2007 Oxford Oxbow Books 79 108
106. Ponting Matthew Bowman Alan , Wilson Andrew "Roman Silver Coinage: Mints, Metallurgy, and Production" Quantifying the Roman Economy 2009 Oxford Oxford University Press 269 280 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199562596.003.0012
107. Potts Daniel T. The Arabian Gulf in Antiquity 1990 Oxford Clarendon Press 2 vols.
108. Radhakrishnan P.V. Roman Gold & Silver Coins from India: A Collectors Guide 1999 Nashik Indian Institute of Research in Numismatic Studies
109. Rajgor Dilip MacDowall David W. , Jha Amiteshwar "Roman Currency in Gujarat" Foreign Coins Found in the Indian Sub-Continent 2004 Nashik Indian Institute of Research in Numismatic Studies 69 72
110. Raschke Manfred G. Parsons Peter J. "Papyrological Evidence for Ptolemaic and Roman Trade with India" Proceedings of the xivInternational Congress of Papyrologists 1975 Oxford Egypt Exploration Society 241 246
111. Rathbone Dominic "Italian Wines in Roman Egypt" opvsInternational Journal for Social and Economic History of Antiquity 1983 Vol 2 81 98
112. Rathbone Dominic Abd-el-Ghani Mohammed "The “Muziris” Papyrus ( sb xviii13167): Financing Roman Trade with India" Alexandrian Studies iiin Honour of Mostafa el Abbadi 2000 Alexandria Societé Archéologique d’Alexandrie 39 50
113. Ray Himanshu P. "Sailing to India: Diverse Narratives of Travel in the Western Indian Ocean" The Athens Dialogues: Stories and Histories, Athens 25th-27th November 2010 (25 thJune 2010) 2010 .
114. Reddé Michel , Brun Jean-Pierre Cuvigny Hélène "L’architecture des praesidiaet la genése des dépotoirs" Le route de Myos Hormos 2006 Vol Vol. 1 Cairo Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale 73 185
115. Rougé Jean Louis Pierre "La navigation intérieure dans le Proche Orient antique" L’Homme et l’eau en Méditerranée et au Proche Orient 1986 Lyon Maison de l’Orient 39 49
116. Rutten Katrien "The Roman Fine Wares of ed-Dur (Umm al-Qaiwain, u.a.e.) and Their Distribution in the Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean" Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy 2007 Vol 18 8 24 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0905-7196.2007.00276.x
117. Salles Jean-François Kurt Amelie , Sherwin-White Susan "The Arab Persian Gulf Under the Seleucids" Hellenism in the East 1987 London Duckworth 75 109
118. Salles Jean-François Boussac Marie-François , Salles Jean-François "The Periplusof the Erythraean Sea and the Arab-Persian Gulf" Athens, Aden, Arikamedu 1995 New Delhi Manohar 115 146
119. Salles Jean-François Ray Himanshu P. , Salles Jean-François "Hellenistic Seafaring in the Indian Ocean. A Perspective from Arabia" Tradition and Archaeology 1996 New Delhi Manohar 293 309
120. Salmon Richard "Epigraphic Remains of Indian Traders in Egypt" Journal of the American Oriental Society 1991 Vol 111 4 731 736 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/603404
121. Sarianidi Viktor I. Hierbert Fredrik , Cambon Pierre "Ancient Bactria’s Golden Hoard" Afghanistan: Crossroads of the Ancient World 2011 London British Museum Press 211 217
122. Satyamurthy T. MacDowall David W. , Jha Amiteshwar "The Circulation of Foreign Coins in Southern India" Foreign Coins Found in the Indian Sub-Continent 2004 Nashik Indian Institute of Research in Numismatic Studies 55 57
123. Schiltz Véronique Hierbert Fredrik , Cambon Pierre "Tillya Tepe, the Hill of Gold: A Nomad Necropolis" Afghanistan: Crossroads of the Ancient World 2011 London British Museum Press 219 293
124. Sedov Alexander V. Ray Himanshu P. , Salles Jean-François "Qanaʾ (Yemen) and the Indian Ocean. The Archaeological Evidence" Tradition and Archaeology 1996 New Delhi Manohar 11 35
125. Sedov Alexander V. Peacock David , Williams David "The Port of Qanaʾ and the Incense Trade" Food for the Gods 2007 Oxford Oxbow Books 71 111
126. Seland Eivind H. "The Indian Ocean and the Globalisation of the Ancient World" Ancient West and East 2008 Vol 7 67 79 http://dx.doi.org/10.2143/AWE.7.0.2033253
127. Seland Eivind H. Ports and Political Power in the Periplus 2010 Oxford Archaeopress
128. Seland Eivind H. "The Persian Gulf or the Red Sea? Two Axes in Ancient Indian Ocean Trade: Where to Go and Why" World Archaeology 2011 Vol 43 3 398 409 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00438243.2011.605844
129. Selvakumar Veerasamy , Shajan K.P. , Tomber Roberta Tomber Roberta , Blue Lucy , Abraham Shinu "Archaeological Investigations at Pattanam, Kerala: New Evidence for the Location of Ancient Muziris" Migration, Trade and People: Part 1 2009 London British Academy 29 41
130. Sewell Robert "Roman Coins Found in India" Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland 1904 Vol 36 591 637 http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0035869X00032470
131. Shastri Ajay M. MacDowall David. W. , Jha Amiteshwar "Some Aspects of Roman Coins in India" Foreign Coins Found in the Indian Sub-Continent 2004 Nashik Indian Institute of Research in Numismatic Studies 45 52
132. Shaw Ian Shaw Ian "Egypt and the Outside World" The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt 2000 Oxford Oxford University Press 308 323
133. Sherwin-White Susan , Kuhrt Amelie From Samarkhand to Sardis 1993 London Duckworth
134. Sidebotham Steven E. Roman Economic Policy in the Erythra Thalassa 30 bc-ad 1986 Vol 217 Leiden Brill
135. Sidebotham Steven E. French David H. , Lightfoot Chris S. "Port of the Red Sea and the Arabia-India Trade" The Eastern Frontier of the Roman Empire 1989 Oxford BAR 485 514 BAR International Series 553
136. Sidebotham Steven E. Begley Vimala , De Puma Richard D. "Ports of the Red Sea and the Arabia-India Trade" Rome and India: The Ancient Sea Trade 1991 Madison University of Wisconsin Press 12 38
137. Sidebotham Steven E. Reade Julian "Roman Interests in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean" The Indian Ocean in Antiquity 1996 London Kegan Paul International 287 308
138. Sidebotham Steven E. Sidebotham Steven E. , Wendrich Willamina Z. "The Coins" Report of the 1997 Excavations at Berenike 1999 Leiden Centre for Non-Western Study 183 199
139. Sidebotham Steven E. Sidebotham Steven E. , Wendrich Willamina Z. "Coins" Report of the 1998 Excavations at Berenike 2000 Leiden Centre for Non-Western Study 169 178
140. Sidebotham Steven E. Berenike and the Ancient Maritime Spice Route 2011a London University of California Press http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/california/9780520244306.001.0001
141. Sidebotham Steven E. Peacock David , Blue Lucy , Whitewright Julian "Appendix 1: Ancient Coins from Quseir al-Qadim: The Oreintal Institute, University of Chicago Excavations 1978, 1980 and 1982" Myos Hormos: Quseir al-Qadim Roman and Islamic Ports on the Red Sea 2011b Vol Vol. 2 Oxford Archaeopress 353 360 BAR International Series 2286
142. Sidebotham Steven E. , Hense Martin , Nouwens Hendrikle M. The Red Land 2008 Cairo The American University in Cairo Press
143. Sidebotham Steven E. , Seeger John A. Sidebotham Steven E. , Wendrich Willamina Z. "The Coins Catalogue" Berenike 1995 Preliminary Report 1996 Leiden Centre for Non-Western Study 179 196
144. Sidebotham Steven E. , Wendrich Willamina Z. Berenike 1999/2000 Report on the Excavations 2007 Los Angeles Cotsen Institute of Archaeology
145. Sinclair Paul J.J. Starkey Janet , Starkey Paul , Wilkinson Tony "What is the Archaeological Evidence for External Trading Contacts on the East African Coast in the First Millennium bc?" Natural Resources and Cultural Connections of the Red Sea 2007 Oxford Archaeopress 187 194
146. Singh Ajay. K. Indo-Roman Trade 1988 New Delhi Commonwealth Publishers
147. Slane Kathleen W. Begley Vimala , De Puma Richard D. "Observations on Mediterranean Amphoras and Tablewares Found in India" Rome and India. The Ancient Sea Trade 1991 Madison University of Wisconsin Press 204 215
148. Smith Matthew C. , Wright Henry T. "The Ceramics from Ras Hafun in Somalia: Notes on a Classical Maritime Site" Azania 1988 Vol 23 115 141 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00672708809511389
149. Smith Richard L. Trade in World History 2009 London Routledge
150. Strauch Ingo Foreign Sailors on Socotra 2012 Bremen Hempen
151. Strauss Elisabeth J. Roman Cargoes: Underwater Evidence from the Eastern Mediterranean 2007 University College London PhD diss.
152. Suresh Sethuraman Symbols of Trade Roman and Pseudo-Roman Objects Found in India 2004 Delhi Manohar
153. Sutherland Carol H.V. , Carson Robert A.G. " The Roman Imperial Coinage " From 31 bcto ad 1984 Vol Vol. 1 69 London Spink Rev. ed.
154. Syme Ronald Anatolica: Studies in Strabo 1995 Oxford Clarendon Press
155. Tait John G. Greek Ostraka in the Bodleian Library at Oxford and Various Other Collections 1930 Vol Vol. 1 London Egypt Exploration Society
156. Tchernia André "Moussons et monnaies: Les voies du commerce entre le monde gréco-romain et l’Inde" Annales Histoire, Sciences Sociales 1995a Vol 50 5 991 1009 http://dx.doi.org/10.3406/ahess.1995.279415
157. Tchernia André Boussac Marie-François , Salles Jean-François "Rome and India: Archaeology Alone?" Athens, Aden, Arikamedu 1995b New Delhi Manohar 147 156
158. Tchernia André De Romanis Federico , Tchernia André "The Dromedary of the Peticii and Trade with the East" Crossings 1997a New Delhi Manohar 238 249
159. Tchernia André De Romanis Federico , Tchernia André "Winds and Coins: From the Supposed Discovery of the Monsoon to the Denariiof Tiberius" Crossings 1997b New Delhi Manohar 250 276
160. Thapar Romila Ancient Indian Social History: Some Interpretations 1978 London Sangam Books
161. Thapar Romila De Romanis Federico , Tchernia André "Early Mediterranean Contact with India: An Overview" Crossings 1997 New Delhi Manohar 11 40
162. Thomas Ross Peacock David , Blue Lucy , Whitewright Julian "Roman Vessels Stoppers" Myos Hormos: Quseir al-Qadim Roman and Islamic Ports on the Red Sea 2011a Vol Vol. 2 Oxford Archaeopress 11 34 BAR International Series 2286
163. Thomas Ross Peacock David , Blue Lucy , Whitewright Julian "Terracotta Figurines" Myos Hormos: Quseir al-Qadim Roman and Islamic Ports on the Red Sea 2011b Vol Vol. 2 Oxford Archaeopress 79 83 BAR International Series 2286
164. Tomber Roberta "Indo-Roman Trade: The Ceramic Evidence from Egypt" Antiquity 2000 Vol 74 285 624 631
165. Tomber Roberta "Rome and South Arabia: New Artefactual Evidence from the Red Sea" Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 2004 Vol 34 351 360
166. Tomber Roberta Briese Maria B. , Vaag Leif E. "Trade Relations in the Eastern Mediterranean and Beyond: The Egyptian-Indian Connection" Trade Relations in the Eastern Mediterranean from the Late Hellenistic Period to Late Antiquity: The Ceramic Evidence 2005 Odense University Press of Southern Denmark 221 233
167. Tomber Roberta Starkey Janet , Starkey Paul , Wilkinson Tony "Bishops and Traders: The Role of Christianity in the Indian Ocean during the Roman Period" Natural Resources and Cultural Connections of the Red Sea 2007a Oxford Archaeopress 219 228
168. Tomber Roberta "Rome and Mesopotamia: Importers into India in the First Millennium ad " Antiquity 20072007b Vol 81 972 988 http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0003598X00096058
169. Tomber Roberta Indo-Roman Trade: From Pots to Pepper 2008 London Duckworth
170. Tomber Roberta Tomber Roberta , Blue Lucy , Abraham Shinu "Beyond Western India: The Evidence from Imported Amphorae" Migration, Trade and People: Part 1 2009 London British Academy 42 57
171. Roberta Tomber , Graf David , Healy John F. , Römer-Strehl Christiane , Majcherek Grzegorz Peacock David , Blue Lucy , Whitewright Julian "Pots with Writing" Myos Hormos: Quseir al-Qadim Roman and Islamic Ports on the Red Sea 2011 Vol Vol. 2 Oxford Archaeopress 5 10 BAR International Series 2286
172. Tripati Sila "Ancient Maritime Trade of the Eastern Indian Littoral" Current Science 2011 Vol 100 7 1076 1086
173. Turner Eric G. "Papyrus 40 “della Raccolta Milanese.”" JRS 1950 Vol 40 57 59
174. Turner Paula J. Roman Coins from India 1989 London Royal Society and Institute of Archaeology, University College Royal Numismatics Society Spec. Publ. 22
175. Turner Paula J. , Cribb Joe Reade Julian "Numismatic Evidence for the Roman Trade with Ancient India" The Indian Ocean in Antiquity 1996 London British Museum 309 319
176. Van Der Veen Marijke Consumption, Trade and Innovation 2011 Frankfurt am Main Africa Magna Journal of African Archaeology Monogr. Ser. 6
177. Van Rengan Wilfried Peacock David , Blue Lucy , Whitewright Julian "The Written Material from the Greco-Roman Period" Myos Hormos: Quseir al-Qadim Roman and Islamic Ports on the Red Sea 2011 Vol Vol. 2 Oxford Archaeopress 335 338 BAR International Series 2286
178. Verhoogt Arthur M.F.W. Sidebotham Steven E. , Wendrich Willamina "Greek and Latin Textual Material" Report of the 1996 Excavations at Berenike 1998 Leiden Centre for Non-Western Study 193 198
179. Villeneuve François Lewin Ariel S. , Pellegrini Pietrina "L’Armée romaine en mer Rouge et autour de la mer Rouge aux iiéme et iiiéme siècles apr. J.C.: à propos de deux inscriptions latines découvertes sur l’archipel Farasan" The Late Roman Army in the Near East from Diocletian to the Arab Conquest 2007 Oxford Archaeopress 13 28 BAR international Series 1717
180. Vogt Burkhard Reade Julian "Bronze Age Maritime Trade in the Indian Ocean: Harrappan Traits on the Oman Peninsula" The Indian Ocean in Antiquity 1996 London Kegan Paul International 107 132
181. Wallace-Hadrill Andrew Rome’s Cultural Revolution 2008 Cambridge Cambridge University Press
182. Warburton David A. Seland Eivind H. "What Happened in the Near East ca 2000 bc?" The Indian Ocean in the Ancient Period 2007 Oxford Archaeopress 9 21
183. Ward Walter Starkey Janet , Starkey Paul , Wilkinson Tony "Aila and Clysma: The Rise of Northern Ports in the Red Sea in Late Antiquity" Natural Resources and Cultural Connections of the Red Sea 2007 Oxford Archaeopress 161 171
184. Warmington Eric H. The Commerce between the Roman Empire and India 1928 London Cambridge University Press
185. Wheeler Robert E.M. Rome beyond the Imperial Frontiers 1954 London Bell
186. Whitcomb Donald S. Whitcomb Donald S. , Johnson Janet H. "Trench Summaries" Quseir al-Qadim 1978 Preliminary Report 1979 Cairo American Research Center in Egypt 11 65
187. Whitcomb Donald S. Whitcomb Donald S. , Johnson Janet H. "Roman Ceramics" Quseir al-Qadim 1980 Preliminary Report 1982 Malibu American Research Center in Egypt 51 115
188. Whitehouse David "Begram Reconsidered" Kölner Jahrbuch für Vor- und Frühgeschichte 1989a Vol 22 151 157
189. Whitehouse David "The Periplus and Gandharan Art" Journal of Roman Archaeology 1989b Vol 2 93 100
190. Whitewright Julian Maritime Technological Change and the Ancient World: The Invention of the Lateen Sail 2008 Southampton University PhD diss.
191. Whittaker Charles R. Rome and Its Frontiers: The Dynamics of Empire 2004 London Routledge http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203476314
192. Will Elizabeth L. Begley Vimala "The Mediterranean Shipping Amphoras from the 1989-92 Excavations" The Ancient Port of Arikamedu. New Excavations and Researches 1989-1992 2004 Vol Vol. 2 Paris École Française d’Extrême-Orient 325 404
193. Williams David , Peacock David Pollini John "The Eruption of Vesuvius and Campanian Dressel 2-4 Amphorae" Terra Marique 2005 Oxford Oxbow Books 140 148
194. Wilson Andrew Bowman Alan , Wilson Andrew "Approaches to Quantifying Roman Trade" Quantifying the Roman Economy 2009 Oxford Oxford University Press 213 249 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199562596.003.0009
195. Wood Frances The Silk Road: Two Thousand Years in the Heart of Asia 2002 Berkeley University of California Press
196. Young Gary K. Rome’s Eastern Trade International Commerce and Imperial Policy, 31 bc- ad 2001 Vol 305 London Routledge
http://brill.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1163/15685209-12341378
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/15685209-12341378
2015-07-06
2017-11-24

Sign-in

Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
     
    Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation