Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

It was a Dark and Stagnant Night (‘til the Jadids Brought the Light): Clichés, Biases, and False Dichotomies in the Intellectual History of Central Asia

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient

This essay presents a broad critique of prevailing approaches to and assumptions about Jadidism, arguing that much earlier scholarship on the Jadids has misconstrued key aspects of their ‘program’ and has exaggerated their originality, impact, and importance. Following introductory discussions of the recurrent motifs and claims found in ‘Jadidocentric’ scholarship, the essay considers five issues in particular: (1) the academic bias through which scholars have taken the Jadids’ critique as reliably descriptive rather than polemical; (2) the neglect of earlier Central Asian manifestations of critiques similar to the Jadids’; (3) the analytical drawbacks of the notion of ‘modernity’ as used to characterize the Jadids; (4) neglect or denial of the religious character of the Jadids’ program; and (5) inattention to the wider intellectual history of Central Asia before and during the era of the Jadids.

Affiliations: 1: Indiana University


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. Akiner Shirin Atabaki Touraj , O’Kane John "Social and Political Reorganisation in Central Asia: Transition from Pre-Colonial to Post-Colonial Society" Post-Soviet Central Asia 1998 London Tauris Academic Studies 1 34
2. Babadžanov Baxtiyor M. Kemper Michael , von Kügelgen Anke , Yermakov Dmitriy "On the History of the Naqšbandīya Muǧaddidīya in Central Māwarāʻannahr in the Late 18th and Early 19th Centuries" Muslim Culture in Russia and Central Asia from the 18th to the Early 20th Centuries 1996 Berlin Klaus Schwarz Verlag 385 413 Islamkundliche Untersuchungen, Bd. 200
3. Babadzhanov B.M. " Kokandskoe khanstvo: Vlast’, politika, religiia " Tokyo/Tashkent: nihu Program Islamic Area Studies Center at the University of Tokyo/Institut vostokovedeniia Akademii nauk Respubliki Uzbekistan 2010
4. Babadzhanov B.M. , Mukhammadaminov S. A. " Sobranie fetv po obosnovaniiu zikra dzhakhr i samaʽ (A Collection of Fatwas Legitimizing the Vocal Dhikr and Sama’)" 2009 Almaty Daik-Press
5. Baldauf Ingeborg "Jadidism in Central Asia within Reformism and Modernism in the Muslim World" Die Welt des Islams 2001 Vol 41 72 88
6. Bashir Shahzad "On Islamic Time: Rethinking Chronology in the Historiography of Muslim Societies" History and Theory 2014 Vol 53 519 544
7. Bauman Zygmunt Postmodernity and its Discontents 1997 New York New York University Press
8. Bayly Christopher A. The Birth of the Modern World, 1780-1914: Global Connections and Comparisons 2004 Oxford Blackwell
9. Bennigsen Alexandre , Lemercier-Quelquejay Chantal Islam in the Soviet Union 1967 New York Praeger
10. Bennigsen Alexandre , Wimbush S. Enders Muslim National Communism in the Soviet Union: A Revolutionary Strategy for the Colonial World 1979 Chicago University of Chicago Press
11. Best Steven , Kellner Douglas The Postmodern Turn 1997 New York/London The Guilford Press
12. Carley Patricia M. Tismaneanu Vladimir "The Legacy of the Soviet Political System and the Prospects for Developing Civil Society in Central Asia" Political Culture and Civil Society in Russia and the New States of Eurasia 1995 Armonk M. E. Sharpe 292 317
13. Carrère d’Encausse Hélène Hoare Quintin Islam and the Russian Empire: Reform and Revolution in Central Asia 1988 Berkeley University of California Press (first published in French in 1966)
14. Casanova José Public Religions in the Modern World 1994 Chicago University of Chicago Press
15. Cook Michael Commanding Right and Forbidding Wrong in Islamic Thought 2000 Cambridge Cambridge University Press
16. Cooper Frederick Colonialism in Question: Theory, Knowledge, History 2005 Berkeley and Los Angeles University of California Press
17. Crews Robert D. For Prophet and Tsar: Islam and Empire in Russia and Central Asia 2006 Cambridge, Massachusetts Harvard University Press
18. Dağyeli Jeanine Elif ‘Gott liebt das Handwerk:’ Moral, Identität und religiöse Legitimierung in der mittelasiatischen Handwerks-risāla 2011 Wiesbaden Reichert Verlag
19. DeWeese Devin Babadjanov Bakhtiyar , Yayoi Kawahara "‘Dis-ordering’ Sufism in Early Modern Central Asia: Suggestions for Rethinking the Sources and Social Structures of Sufi History in the 18th and 19th Centuries" History and Culture of Central Asia/Istoriia i kul’tura Tsentral’noi Azii 2012 Tokyo The University of Tokyo 259 279
20. Dudoignon S.A. "La question scolaire à Boukhara et au Turkestan russe, du ‘premier renouveau’ à la soviétisation (fin du xviii e siècle-1937)" Cahiers du monde russe 1996 Vol 37 1-2 133 210
21. Dudoignon S.A. Tsugitaka Sato "Faction Struggles among the Bukharan ulama during the Colonial, the Revolutionary and the Early Soviet Periods (1868-1929): A Paradigm for History Writing?" Muslim Societies: Historical and Comparative Aspects 2004 London/New York RoutledgeCurzon 62 96
22. Frank Allen J. Islamic Historiography and ‘Bulghar’ Identity among the Tatars and Bashkirs of Russia 1998 Leiden Brill
23. Frank Allen J. Muslim Religious Institutions in Imperial Russia: The Islamic World of Novouzensk District and the Kazakh Inner Horde 2001 Leiden Brill 1780 1910
24. Frank Allen J. Hayashi Tadayuki "Islamic Transformation on the Kazakh Steppe, 1742-1917: Toward an Islamic History of Kazakhstan under Russian Rule" The Construction and Deconstruction of National Histories in Slavic Eurasia 2003 Sapporo Slavic Research Center 261 289
25. Frank Allen J. Bukhara and the Muslims of Russia: Sufism, Education, and the Paradox of Islamic Prestige 2012 Leiden Brill
26. Frank Allen J. , Mirkasyim A. Usmanov " An Islamic Biographical Dictionary of the Eastern Kazakh Steppe " Qurbān-ʿAlī Khālidī 2005 Leiden Brill 1770 1912
27. Giddens Anthony The Consequences of Modernity 1990 Stanford, California Stanford University Press
28. Kanlidere Ahmet Reform within Islam: The Tajdid and Jadid Movement among the Kazan Tatars (1809-1917): Conciliation or Conflict? 1997 Istanbul Eren
29. Kemper Michael "Entre Boukhara et la Moyenne-Volga: ʻAbd an-Naṣīr al-Qūrṣāwī (1776-1812) en conflit avec les oulémas traditionalistes" Cahiers du monde russe 1996 Vol 37 1-2 41 51
30. Kemper Michael Sufis und Gelehrte in Tatarien und Baschkirien, 1789-1889: Der islamische Diskurs unter russischer Herrschaft 1998 Berlin Klaus Schwarz
31. Khalid Adeeb The Politics of Muslim Cultural Reform: Jadidism in Central Asia 1998 Berkeley University of California Press
32. Khalid Adeeb Feener R. Michael "Islam in Contemporary Central Asia" Islam in World Cultures: Comparative Perspectives 2004 Santa Barbara, California ABC-Clio 133 159
33. Khalid Adeeb "What Jadidism Was, and What It Wasn’t: The Historiographical Adventures of a Term" Central Eurasian Studies Review 2006 Vol 5 2 3 7
34. Khalid Adeeb Islam after Communism: Religion and Politics in Central Asia 2007 Berkeley/Los Angeles/London University of California Press
35. Kırımlı Hakan National Movements and National Identity among the Crimean Tatars (1905-1916) 1996 Leiden E. J. Brill
36. von Kügelgen Anke von Kügelgen Anke , Kemper Michael , Frank Allen J. "Die Entfaltung der Naqšbandīya Muǧaddidīya im mittleren Transoxanien vom 18. bis zum Beginn des 19. Jahrhunderts: Ein Stück Detektivarbeit" Muslim Culture in Russia and Central Asia from the 18th to the Early 20th Centuries 1998 Vol vol. 2 Berlin Klaus Schwarz Verlag 101 151 Islamkundliche Untersuchungen, Bd. 216 Inter-Regional and Inter-Ethnic Relations
37. von Kügelgen Anke Die Legitimierung der mittelasiatischen Mangitendynastie in den Werken ihrer Historiker (18.-19. Jahrhundert) 2002 Almaty Daik-Press 2004 Istanbul: Orient-Institut der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft/Würzburg: Ergon-Verlag; Beiruter Texte und Studien, Band 86. Russian translation: Anke fon Kiugel’gen, Legitimatsiia sredneaziatskoi dinastii mangitov v proizvedeniiakh ikh istorikov (xviii-xix vv.)
38. Kurzmann Charles Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook 1998 Oxford Oxford University Press
39. Kurzmann Charles Modernist Islam, 1840-1940: A Sourcebook 2002 Oxford Oxford University Press
40. Kuttner T. "Russian Jadidism in the Islamic World. Ismail Gasprinskii in Cairo—1908. A Call to the Arabs for the Rejuvenation of the Islamic World" Cahiers du monde russe et soviétique 1975 Vol 16 383 424
41. Lazzerini Edward J. "Ǧadidism at the Turn of the Twentieth Century: A View from Within" Cahiers du monde russe et soviétique 1975 Vol 16 245 277
42. Lazzerini Edward J. Lemercier-Quelquejay Ch. , Veinstein G. , Wimbush S. E. "The Revival of Islamic Culture in Pre-Revolutionary Russia: Or, Why a Prosopography of the Tatar ulama?" Turko-Tatar Past, Soviet Present (Studies Presented to Alexandre Bennigsen) 1986 Paris Éditions Peeters 367 372
43. Lazzerini Edward J. Gross Jo-Ann "Beyond Renewal: The Jadīd Response to Pressure for Change in the Modern Age" Muslims in Central Asia: Expressions of Identity and Change 1992 Durham, North Carolina Duke University Press 151 166
44. Lemercier-Quelquejay Chantal "Abdul Kayum al-Nasyri: A Tatar Reformer of the 19th Century" Central Asian Survey 1983 Vol 1 4 109 132
45. Meyer James H. Tomohiko Uyama "The Economics of Muslim Cultural Reform: Money, Power and Muslim Communities in Late Imperial Russia" Asiatic Russia: Imperial Power in Regional and International Contexts 2012 London/New York Routledge 252 270
46. Meyer James H. "Speaking Sharia to the State: Muslim Protesters, Tsarist Officials, and the Islamic Discourses of Late Imperial Russia" Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History 2013 Vol 14 3 485 505
47. Rorlich Azade-Ayse "‘Which Way will Tatar Culture Go?’ A Controversial Essay by Galimdzhan Ibragimov" Cahiers du monde russe et soviétique 1974 Vol 15 363 371
48. Ross Danielle "Reform and Youth Rebellion in Russia’s Madrasas, 1900-10" Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History 2015 Vol 16 1 57 89
49. Sedgwick Mark Against the Modern World: Traditionalism and the Secret Intellectual History of the Twentieth Century 2004 Oxford Oxford University Press
50. Smith Wilfred Cantwell Smith Wilfred Cantwell "Islamic History as a Concept" On Understanding Islam: Selected Studies 1981 The Hague/Paris/New York Mouton Publishers 3 25
51. Starr S. Frederick Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane 2013 Princeton Princeton University Press
52. Tuna Mustafa Imperial Russia’s Muslims: Islam, Empire, and European Modernity, 1788-1917 2015 Cambridge Cambridge University Press
53. Yack Bernard The Fetishism of Modernities: Epochal Self-Consciousness in Contemporary Social and Political Thought 1997 Notre Dame, Indiana University of Notre Dame Press
54. Yavuz M. Hakan "Nationalism and Islam: Yusuf Akçura and Üç Tarz-ı Siyaset " Journal of Islamic Studies 1993 Vol 4 2 175 207
55. Zarcone Thierry "Philosophie et théologie chez les Djadids: La question du raisonnement indépendant (iǧtihâd)" Cahiers du monde russe 1996 Vol 37 1-2 53 64
56. Zenkovsky Serge A. " Kulturkampf in Pre-revolutionary Central Asia" American Slavic and East European Review 1955 Vol 14 15 41
57. Zenkovsky Serge A. Pan-Turkism and Islam in Russia 1967 Cambridge, Massachusetts Harvard University Press

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation