Cookies Policy
X

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

On the Relationship between Birds and Spirits of the Dead

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Society & Animals

Birds have an ambiguous symbolic significance across cultures throughout human history, ubiquitously relating to both life and death. Birds are routinely seen as portents of impending calamity and death, while they are also often thought to bear away or steal spirits of the dead, sometimes even embodying those very spirits themselves. On the other hand, birds are also commonly associated with life, fertility, and longevity. This paper brings together cross-cultural evidence for the practically universal associations between birds and both life and death. This paper offers an explanation for this association as an expression of the deep-seated human ambivalence to mortality. As a form of Jungian archetype, birds reflect a fundamental aspect of human nature—the denial of death as finality through a desire for renewal, transformation, and rebirth.

Affiliations: 1: California State UniversityEast Baychristopher.moreman@csueastbay.edu

Loading

Full text loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/15685306-12341328
Loading

Data & Media loading...

1. Armstrong E. The folklore of birds: An enquiry into the origins & distribution of some magico-religious traditions 1958 New York, NY Dover
2. Armstrong E. "The crane dance in East and West" Antiquity 1943 Vol 17 71 76
3. Baring A. , Cashford J. The myth of the goddess 1991 London, UK Penguin
4. Beckwith M. Hawaiian mythology 1970 Honolulu, HI University of Hawaii Press
5. Beckwith M. "Mythology of the Oglala Dakota" Journal of American Folklore 1930 Vol 43 170 339 342 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/535138
6. Beér R. Encyclopedia of Tibetan symbols and motifs 2004 Chicago, IL Serindia
7. Berger J. "Animals as metaphor" New Society 1977 Vol 39 783 504 505
8. Blackmore S. Beyond the body 1982 London, UK William Heinemann
9. Copeland F. "Slovene folklore" Folklore 1931 Vol 42 4 405 446 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0015587X.1931.9718415
10. Crooke W. Popular religion and folklore of Northern India 1896 Delhi, India Munshiram Manoharlal
11. Day Lewis C. The Aeneid of Virgil 1952 Oxford, UK Oxford University Press
12. Eliade M. Le chamanisme et les techniques archaïque de l’extase 1968 Paris, France Payot
13. Fagles R. The Iliad 1990 New York, NY Penguin
14. Friend H. Flowers and flower lore 1883 London, UK W. S. Sonnenschein and Company
15. Green C. Out-of-the-body experiences 1968 Oxford, UK Institute of Psychophysical Research
16. Green C. , McCreery C. Apparitions 1975 London, UK Hamish Hamilton
17. Hare C. Bird lore 1962 London, UK Country Life
18. Hillman J. Dream animals 1997 San Francisco, CA Chronicle
19. Hillman J. The dream and the underworld 1979 San Francisco, CA Harper & Row
20. Hisham I. Guillaume A. The life of Muhammad 1968 Oxford, UK Oxford University Press
21. Hole C. Encyclopedia of superstitions 1961 New York, NY Barnes & Noble
22. Holmgren V. Owls in folklore and natural history 1988 Santa Barbara, CA Capra
23. Ingersoll E. Birds in legend, fable, and folklore 1923 New York, NY Longmans, Green and Co http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.5545
24. Jaffé A. Apparitions and precognition 1963 New York, NY University Books
25. James E. "The concept of the soul in North America" Folklore 1927 Vol 38 4 338 357 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0015587X.1927.9716755
26. Jung C. Hull R. Synchronicity 1973 Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press
27. Jung C. Hull R. The archetypes and the collective unconscious 1969a Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press
28. Jung C. Read S. H. , Adler G. Hull R. "Psychological commentary on “The Tibetan Book of the Great Liberation”" Psychology and religion: East and West, Collected works 1969b Vol Volume 11 Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press 475 508
29. Jung C. Hull R. The archetypes and the collective unconscious. Collected works 1959 Vol Volume 9, Part 1 Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press
30. Jung C. Hull R. Symbols of transformation 1956 Vol Collected works, Volume 5 New York, NY Pantheon
31. Jung C. Psychology and religion 1938 New Haven, CT Yale University Press
32. Jung C. , von Franz M.-L. , Henderson J. , Jacobi J. , Jaffé A. Man and his symbols 1964 New York, NY Doubleday
33. Kampen M. "Classic Veracruz grotesques and sacrificial iconography" Man, New Series 1978 Vol 13 1 116 126
34. Krech S. Spirits of the air 2009 Athens, GA University of Georgia Press
35. Kübler-Ross E. On death and dying 1969 New York, NY Touchstone
36. Lattimore R. The Iliad of Homer 1961 Chicago, IL University of Chicago Press
37. Leeming D. Creation myths of the world 2010 2nd ed. Santa Barbara, CA ABC-CLIO
38. Lohmann R. "The afterlife of Asabano corpses: Relationships with the deceased in Papua New Guinea" Ethnology 2005 Vol 44 2 189 206 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3773996
39. Loomis R. "Arthurian tradition and folklore" Folklore 1958 Vol 69 1 1 25 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0015587X.1958.9717115
40. Martin L. The folklore of birds 1993 Old Saybrook, CT Globe Pequot
41. McAtee W. "Odds and ends of North American folklore on birds" Midwest Folklore 1955 Vol 5 3 169 183
42. McClenon J. "Near-death folklore in medieval China and Japan: A comparative analysis" Asian Folklore Studies 1991 Vol 50 2 319 342 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1178389
43. Myers F. Essays classical 1883 London, UK MacMillan
44. Noske B. Flynn C. P. "Speciesism, anthropocentrism, and non-Western cultures" Social creatures: A human and animal studies reader 2008 New York, NY Lantern 77 87
45. Opie I. , Tatem M. Dictionary of superstitions 1990 Oxford, UK Oxford University Press
46. Opler M. "Myth and practice in Jicarilla Apache eschatology" Journal of American Folklore 1960 Vol 73 288 133 153 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/537893
47. Otto R. Harvey J. The idea of the holy 1968 New York, NY Oxford University Press
48. Pandey R. Hindu Samskaras 1969 Delhi, India Motilal Banarsidass
49. Patai R. "Lilith" Journal of American Folklore 1964 Vol 77 306 295 314 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/537379
50. Platt C. Popular superstitions 1925 London, UK Herbert Jenkins
51. Pollard J. Birds in Greek life and myth 1977 Plymouth, UK Thames and Hudson
52. Porter J. , Russell W. Animals in folklore 1978 Totowa, NJ Rowman and Littlefield
53. Ratcliff L. "Filipino folklore" Journal of American Folklore 1949 Vol 62 245 259 289 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/537202
54. Rohman C. Pollock M. , Rainwater C. "Burning out the animal: The failure of enlightenment purification in H. G. Wells’s The Island of Dr. Moreau " Figuring animals: Essays on animal images in art, literature, philosophy, and popular culture 2005 New York, NY Palgrave 121 134
55. Rowland B. Birds with human souls 1978 Knoxville, TN University of Tennessee Press
56. Russell F. The Pima Indians 1908 Washington, DC Bureau of American Ethnology
57. Shapiro K. Demello M. "Psychology and human-animal studies: Roads not (yet) taken" Teaching the animal: Human-animal studies across the disciplines 2010 New York, NY Lantern 254 280
58. Shapiro K. "Editor’s introduction to Society & Animals " Society & Animals 1993 Vol 1 1 1 4 http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156853093X00091
59. Smith J. , Haddad Y. The Islamic understanding of death and resurrection 1981 New York, NY State University of New York Press
60. Soëlle D. Lukens-Rumscheidt N. , Lukens-Rumscheidt M. The mystery of death 2007 Minneapolis, MN Fortress
61. Spence L. Encyclopedia of occultism 1920 New York, NY University Books
62. Stetkevych S. The mute immortals speak: Pre-Islamic poetry and the poetics of ritual 1993 Ithaca, NY Cornell University Press
63. Sykes E. "Persian folklore" Folklore 1901 Vol 12 3 261 280 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0015587X.1901.9719633
64. Tate P. Flights of fancy 2007 New York, NY Delacorte
65. von Franz M.-L. Kennedy E. , Brooks V. On dreams and death 1986 Boston, MA Shambhala
66. Walker B. Woman’s encyclopedia of myths and secrets 1983 San Francisco, CA Harper & Row
67. Waterbury F. Bird-deities in China 1952 Ascona, Switzerland Artibus Asiae
68. Weicker G. Der Seelenvogel in der antiken Literatur und Kunst 1902 Leipzig, Germany B. G. Teubner
69. White J. Handbook of Indians of Canada 1913 Ottawa, Canada C. H. Parmelee (Tenth Report of the Geographic Board of Canada)
http://brill.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1163/15685306-12341328
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/15685306-12341328
2014-08-27
2016-12-07

Sign-in

Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
     
    Society & Animals — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation