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Family Fortunes in the Song-Yuan Transition: Academies and Chinese Elite Strategies for Success

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image of T'oung Pao

The founding of academies was a strategy that enabled some Chinese elite families to retain their status through the Song-Yuan transition and beyond. Family academies provided both educational and professional opportunities. The Yuan government rewarded support of education by appointing a family member as academy headmaster, an unranked post that often led to local or regional educational offices. After the restoration of the examination system in 1315, the descendants of the academy founders benefited from family academy education in the competition for examination degrees.

Affiliations: 1: Portland State University


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