Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

The Element שלם in Hebrew Personal Names in the Land of Israel during the Iron Age IIPeriod

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

Archaeological and Biblical Sources

image of Vetus Testamentum

In this study, I investigated all personal names with the element שלם in the Land of Israel during the Iron Age IIperiod. I collected the names from archaeological and biblical sources, analyzed and compared their distribution according to geography, chronology, and political affiliation. The results show that while שלם is a popular element in Judah from the eighth to the early sixth centuries, it is absent from Israel. The element שלם in unvocalized names from archaeological sources is interpreted mostly as ‘replacement, substitute’ (for the deceased child). However, the popularity of the element שלם solely in Judah may indicate that שלם was used more often than we assume as a divine name referring to YHWH, as do all other Judean popular names. In addition, the comparison between the names from archaeological and biblical sources may be interpreted to indicate that the Bible reflects Judean and not Israelite onomastic traditions.

Affiliations: 1: Institute of Archaeology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. Aḥituv S. HaKetav VeHaMiḵtav 2005 Jerusalem (Hebrew)
2. Aḥituv S. Echoes from the Past 2008 Jerusalem
3. Aḥituv S. HaKetav VeHaMiḵtav 2012 2nd edition Jerusalem (Hebrew)
4. Albertz R. , Schmitt R. Family and Household Religion in Ancient Israel and the Levant 2012 Winona Lake, Ind.
5. Avigad N. Corpus of West Semitic Stamp Seals 1997 Jerusalem
6. Barkay G. , Vaughn A.G. Ussishkin D. "“Hebrew Inscription, Section C: The Royal and Official Seal Impressions from Lachish”" The Renewed Archaeological Excavations at Lachish (1973-1994) 2004 Vol Vol. IV Tel Aviv 2148 2173
7. Barr J. The variable spellings of the Hebrew Bible 1989 Oxford
8. Beit-Arieh I. Horvat ‘Uza and Horvat Radum—Two Fortresses in the Biblical Negev 2007 Tel Aviv 122 187 323 324
9. Ben-Ami D. , Tchekhanovets Y. "“The Extent of Jerusalem during the Iron Age iia”" New Studies in the Archaeology of Jerusalem and its Region 2010 Vol Vol. IV Jerusalem 67 73 (Hebrew)
10. Bunimovitz S. , Lederman Z. "Six Seasons of Excavations at Tel Beth-Shemesh—A border Town in Judah" Qadmoniot 1997 Vol 113 22 37 (Hebrew)
11. Cohen G. "“Shallum”" Encyclopaedia Miqraʼit (Encyclopaedia Biblica) 1976 Vol Vol. 7 Jerusalem 684 (Hebrew)
12. Cohen G. "“Shelomith”" Encyclopaedia Miqraʼit (Encyclopaedia Biblica) 1976 Vol Vol. 7 Jerusalem 684 685 (Hebrew)
13. De Vries S.L. 1 and 2 Chronicles 1989 Grand Rapids (The Forms of the Old Testament literature, Vol. xi)
14. Finkelstein I. The Forgotten Kingdom 2013 Atlanta
15. Finkelstein I. , Silberman N.A. "“Temple and Dynasty: Hezekiah, the Reformation of Judah and the Emergence of the Pan-Israelite Ideology”" Eretz-Israel 2009 Vol 29 348 357 (Hebrew)
16. Golub M.R. Personal Names in the Land of Israel during the Iron Age ii: Archaeological and Biblical Sources 2014 Jerusalem Ph.D. dissertation, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem
17. Huffmon H.B. van der Toorn K. , Becking B. , van der Horst P.W. "“Shalem”" Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible ( ddd) 1999 2nd extensively revised edition Leiden 755 757
18. Johnstone W. 1 and 2 Chronicles 1997 Vol 253 Journal for the Study of the Old Testament, Supplement series Sheffield, England 2 vols.
19. Lipschits O. "“The Ivory Seal of šlm(Son of) klkl, Discovered at Ramat Raḥel”" Israel Exploration Journal 2011 Vol 61 162 170
20. Lipschits O. , Sergi O. , Koch I. "“The Date of the lmlkand ‘Private’ Stamp Impressions: A Fresh Look”" Tel Aviv 2010 Vol 37 1 3 32
21. Liver Y. "“Meshelemiah”" Encyclopaedia Mikraʼit (Encyclopaedia Biblica) 1968 Vol Vol. 5 Jerusalem 567 568 (Hebrew)
22. Mazar E. Baruch E. , Greenhut Z. , Faust A. "“It Looks Like King David’s Palace”" New Studies on Jerusalem 2006 Vol Vol. 11 Ramat-Gan 7 16 (Hebrew)
23. McKenzie S.L. 1-2 Chronicles 2004 Nashville, TN Abingdon Old Testament Commentaries
24. Naveh J. "“The Hebrew Ostraca from Site 94/21, Cave A-2, at Ramat Bet Shemesh”" ‘Atiqot 2005 Vol 50 21 24
25. Noth M. Die israelitischen Personennamen im Rahmen der gemeinsemitischen Namengebung 1928 Stuttgart
26. Orman Y. "“Absalom”" Encyclopaedia Miqraʼit (Encyclopaedia Biblica) 1950 Vol Vol. 1 Jerusalem 69 (Hebrew)
27. Porten B. "“Shem, Personal Names B”" Encyclopaedia Mikraʼit (Encyclopaedia Biblica) 1982 Vol Vol. 8 Jerusalem 33 51 (Hebrew)
28. Reich R. , Sass B. Amit Y. , et al "“Three Hebrew Seals from the Iron Age Tombs at Mamillah, Jerusalem”" Essays on Ancient Israel in its Near Eastern Context: A Tribute to Nadav Naʼaman 2006 Winona Lake, Ind. 313 320
29. Reich R. , Shukron E. "“Two Hebrew Seals and Two Hebrew Bullae from the City of David in Jerusalem”" Eretz-Israel 2009 Vol 29 358 362
30. Renz J. Handbuch der althebräischen Epigraphik. Die althebräischen Inschriften:Text und Kommentar 1995 Vol Vol. I Darmstadt
31. Renz J. , Röllig W. Handbuch der althebräischen Epigraphik. Siegel, Gewichte und weitere Dokumente der althebräischen Epigraphik. Materialien zur althebräischen Morphologie 2003 Vol Vol. II/2 Darmstadt
32. Shoham Y. Ariel T.D. "“Hebrew Bullae”" Excavations in the City of David 1978-1985 Directed by Yigal Shiloh 2000 Vol Vol. VI: Inscriptions Jerusalem
33. Thiele E.R. The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings: A Reconstruction of the Chronology of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah 1965 Revised edition Chicago
34. Ussishkin D. The Renewed Archaeological Excavations at Lachish (1973-1994) 2004 Vol Vol. IV Tel Aviv 2133 2147
35. Winderbaum A. Amit D. , Stiebel G.D. , Peleg-Barkat O. , Ben-Ami D. "“Assur in Jerusalem—New Glyptic Evidence of the Assyrian Influence on Jerusalem”" New Studies in the Archaeology of Jerusalem and its Region 2012 Vol Vol. VI Jerusalem 83 104 (Hebrew)

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    Vetus Testamentum — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation