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Disenchantment and the Environmental Crisis: Lynn White Jr., Max Weber, and Muhammad Iqbal

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“The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis” by Lynn White Jr. poses specific challenges to Islamic metaphysics and theology that have yet to be adequately addressed by Muslim scholars. I argue that the transition from a panentheistic view of God to an increasingly supernaturalist one is indicative of a larger shift in worldview that White had failed to emphasize. Reading White’s essay in light of Weber and Iqbal, I argue that a worldview dominated by rational thought is consistent with supernatural theism. The challenges posed by White’s essay can be met through Iqbal’s postmodern reconstruction of Islamic theology in panentheistic terms.


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Affiliations: 1: Assistant Professor, Religion Department, Concordia College, 901 8th St S, Moorhead MN 56562, USA, Email:


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