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Who Gets What? God or Disciples, Human Spirit or Holy Spirit in John 19:30

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Interpretations of John 19:30 historically have divided themselves into three categories: (1) Jesus surrenders his spirit in death (traditional view); (2) Jesus gives the Holy Spirit to disciples at the cross (E.C. Hoskyns); and (3) a combination of these two, wherein the explicit description of death also implies the Spirit's future denouement. Here a new interpretation is offered that is more congruent with Johannine theology and vocabulary: Jesus is actually returning the Holy Spirit to his Father in preparation for the sending of the Paraclete as promised in John 7:39.

Affiliations: 1: Grand Rapids, Michigan


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