AbstractObservers are said to blame actors for causing bad side-effects more than they reward them for causing good ones (Knobe, 2003). We show that moral appraisals play a less crucial role in the attribution of intentionality and judgments than previously suggested. Instead, the negativity or positivity of a consequence constitute a scenario effect, accounting for biased intentionality attributions and judgments. Moreover, moral appraisals are reinforced by actors signaling norm adherence, e.g., caring about information on action consequences. This affects the propensity to attribute intentionality. Our results suggest that the praise-blame bias persists even if observers do not make moral judgements.
5. CokelyE. T. , FeltzA. "Individual differences, judgment biases, and theory-of-mind: Deconstructing the intentional action side effect asymmetry" Journal of Research in Personality2009 Vol 43 1824 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2008.10.007
12. FeltzA. "The Knobe effect: A brief overview" Journal of Mind and Behavior2007 Vol 28 265277
13. FeltzA. , CokelyE. T. "The fragmented folk: More evidence of stable individual differences in moral judgements and folk intuitions" 2008Proceedings of the 30th annual conference of the cognitive science societyAustin, TX.17711776Cognitive Science Society
14. GigerenzerG. , ToddP. M.ABC Research GroupSimple heuristics that make us smart1999New York, NY.Oxford University Press
15. GreinerB. "The online recruitment system ORSEE 2.0 - A guide for the organization of experiments in economics" Working Paper Series in Economics 10, University of Cologne, Department of Economics2004CologneUniversity of Cologne
30. PellizzoniS. , GirottoV. , SurianL. "Beliefs and Moral Valence Affect Intentionality Attributions: the Case of Side Effects" Review of Philosophy and Psychology2009a Vol 1 201209 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13164-009-0008-1
31. PellizzoniS. , SiegalM. , SurianL. "Foreknowledge, caring, and the side-effect effect In young children" Developmental Psychology2009b Vol 45 289295 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0014165