Cookies Policy
X

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

On the Outside Looking In: Distress and Sympathy for Ethnic Victims of Violence by Out-Group Members

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Journal of Cognition and Culture

It is well documented that individuals respond with negative emotions to racial and ethnic out-groups. Yet, it is unknown whether the responses are a measure of simple emotional reactivity or if they are also influenced by emotion regulation. Given the importance of emotions in out-group evaluation (see Intergroup Emotion Theory; Smith and Mackie, 2008), we investigated emotional reactivity and regulation in response to out-group victimization. Forty-one undergraduates completed the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire and viewed three sets of images: lynching of African-Americans, torture of Abu Ghraib prison detainees, and IAPS images depicting graphic violence. Participants rated 13 emotions before and after viewing the images. A factor analysis identified four emotional response categories: Distress, Sympathy, Arousal and Avoidance. Analyses at both the individual emotion level and factor level indicated that negative emotions (e.g., anger, disgust, and guilt) were greater in response to violence against ethnic groups relative to violence depicted in the IAPS images. Emotional suppression predicted blunted distress and arousal to ethnic victimization. These findings highlight that emotional responses to out-group victimization are complex and tempered by emotional suppression. Individuals’ emotion regulation may provide further insight into responses to ethnic and racial out-groups.

Affiliations: 1: Marquette University, Department of Psychology Milwaukee, wiUSA nakia.gordon@marquette.edu ; 2: Marquette University, Department of Psychology Milwaukee, wiUSA

10.1163/15685373-12340004
/content/journals/10.1163/15685373-12340004
dcterms_title,pub_keyword,dcterms_description,pub_author
10
5
Loading
Loading

Full text loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/15685373-12340004
Loading

Data & Media loading...

1. Allen J., Als H., Lewis J., Litwack L. F. 2000 Without sanctuary: Lynching photography in America Santa Fe, NM Twin Palms
2. Batson C. D., Chao M. C., Givens J. M. 2009 "Pursuing moral outrage: Anger at torture" Journal of Experimental Social PsychologyVol 45 1 155 160 doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2008.07.017 [Crossref]
3. Baum R. N. 1996"What I have learned to feel: The pedagogical emotions of Holocaust education" College LiteratureVol 23 3 44 57
4. Bresnahan M. J., Ohashi R., Nebashi R., Liu W. Y., Shearman S. M. 2002"Attitudinal and affective response toward accented English" Language & CommunicationVol 22 2 171 185 [Crossref]
5. Butler E. A., Egloff B., Wlhelm F. H., Smith N. C., Erickson E. A., Gross J. J. 2003"The social consequences of expressive suppression" EmotionVol 3 1 48 67 doi:10.1037/1528–3542.3.1.48 [Crossref]
6. Castano E., Giner-Sorollo R. 2006"Not quite human: Infrahumanization in response to collective responsibility for intergroup killing" Journal of Personality and Social PsychologyVol 90 5 804 818 doi:10.1037/0022-3514.90.5.804 [Crossref]
7. Čehajić S., Brown R., González R. 2009"What do I care? Perceived ingroup responsibility and dehumanization as predictors of empathy felt for the victim group" Group Processes & Intergroup RelationsVol 12 6 715 729 doi:10.1177/1368430209347727 [Crossref]
8. Cottrell C. A., Neuberg S. L. 2005"Different emotional reactions to different groups: a sociofunctional threat-based approach to “prejudice”" Journal of Personality and Social PsychologyVol 88 5 770 doi:10.1037/0022–3514.88.5.770 [Crossref]
9. Delgado N., Rodríguez-Pérez A., Vaes J., Leyens J.-P., Betancor V. 2009 "Priming effects of violence on infrahumanization" Group Processes & Intergroup Relations Vol 12 6 699 714 doi:10.1177/1368430209344607 [Crossref]
10. DeSteno D., Dasgupta N., Bartlett M. Y., Cajdric A. 2004"Prejudice from thin air: The Effect of emotion on automatic intergroup attitudes" Psychological ScienceVol 15 5 319 324 doi:10.1111/j.0956–7976.2004.00676.x [Crossref]
11. Dijker A. J. M. 1987"Emotional reactions to ethnic minorities" European Journal of Social PsychologyVol 17 3 305 325 doi:10.1002/ejsp.2420170306 [Crossref]
12. Gordijn E. H., Yzerbyt V., Wigboldus D., Dumont M. 2006"Emotional reactions to harmful intergroup behavior" European Journal of Social PsychologyVol 36 1 15 30 doi:10.1002/ejsp.296 [Crossref]
13. Gross J. J., John O. P. 2003"Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: implications for affect, relationships, and well-being" Journal of personality and social psychologyVol 85 2 348 362 doi:10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.348 [Crossref]
14. Iyer A., Leach C. W. 2008"Emotion in inter-group relations" European Review of Social PsychologyVol 19 1 86 125 doi:10.1080/10463280802079738 [Crossref]
15. Iyer A., Schmader T., Lickel B. 2007"Why individuals protest the perceived transgressions of their country: The role of anger, shame, and guilt" Personality and Social Psychology BulletinVol 33 4 572 587 doi:10.1177/0146167206297402 [Crossref]
16. John O. P., Gross J. J. 2004"Healthy and unhealthy emotion regulation: personality processes, individual differences, and life span development" Journal of Personality Vol 72 1301 1334 doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.2004.00298.x [Crossref]
17. Lang P.J., Bradley M.M., Cuthbert B.N. 2005 International affective picture system (IAPS): Affective ratings of pictures and instruction manual. Technical Report A-6 University of Florida Gainesville, FL
18. Leach C. W., Iyer A., Pedersen A. 2006"Anger and guilt about Iingroup advantage explain the willingness for political action" Personality and Social Psychology BulletinVol 32 9 1232 1245 doi:10.1177/0146167206289729 [Crossref]
19. Leyens J.-P., Paladino P. M., Rodriguez-Torres R., Vaes J., Demoulin S., Rodriguez-Perez A., Gaunt R. 2000"The emotional side of prejudice: The attribution of secondary emotions to ingroups and outgroups" Personality and Social Psychology ReviewVol 4 2 186 197 doi:10.1207/S15327957pspr0402_06 [Crossref]
20. Mackie D. M., Devos T., Smith E. R. 2000 "Intergroup emotions: Explaining offensive action tendencies in an intergroup context" Journal of Personality and Social PsychologyVol 79 4 602 616 doi:10.1037/0022-3514.79.4.602 [Crossref]
21. Powell A. A., Branscombe N. R., Schmitt M. T. 2005"Inequality as ingroup privilege or outgroup disadvantage: The impact of group focus on collective guilt and interracial attitudes" Personality and Social Psychology BulletinVol 31 4 508 521 doi:10.1177/0146167204271713 [Crossref]
22. Smith E.R., Mackie D. M. 2008"Intergroup emotions" Lewis M., Haviland-Jones J. M., Feldman Barrett L. Handbook of Emotions 428 439 New York, NY Guilford Press
23. Stangor C., Sullivan L. A., Ford T. E. 1991"Affective and Cognitive Determinants of Prejudice" Social CognitionVol 9 4 359 380 doi:10.1521/soco.1991.9.4.359 [Crossref]
24. Stephan W. G., Boniecki K. A., Ybarra O., Bettencourt A., Ervin K. S., Jackson L. A., Renfro C. L. 2002"The role of threats in the racial attitudes of blacks and whites" Personality and Social Psychology BulletinVol 28 9 1242 1254 doi:10.1177/01461672022812009 [Crossref]
25. Stephan W. G., Finlay K. 1999"The role of empathy in improving intergroup relations" Journal of Social IssuesVol 55 4 729 743. doi:10.1111/0022-4537.00144 [Crossref]
26. Talaska C. A., Fiske S. T., Chaiken S. 2008"Legitimating racial discrimination: Emotions, not beliefs, best predict discrimination in a meta-analysis" Social Justice ResearchVol 21 3 263 296 doi:10.1007/s11211-008-0071-2 [Crossref]
27. Tapias M. P., Glaser J., Keltner D., Vasquez K., Wickens T. 2007"Emotion and prejudice: Specific emotions toward outgroups" Group Processes & Intergroup RelationsVol 10 1 27 39 doi:10.1177/1368430207071338 [Crossref]
28. Tarrant M., Branscombe N. R., Warner R. H., Weston D. 2012"Social identity and perceptions of torture: It’s moral when we do it" Journal of Experimental Social PsychologyVol 48 2 513 518 doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2011.10.017 [Crossref]
http://brill.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1163/15685373-12340004
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/15685373-12340004
2017-10-06
2018-09-23

Sign-in

Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
     
    Journal of Cognition and Culture — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation