Cookies Policy
X

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Does this Smile Make me Look White? Exploring the Effects of Emotional Expressions on the Categorization of Multiracial Children

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

Previous research shows that Multiracial adults are categorized as more Black than White (i.e., Black-categorization bias), especially when they have angry facial expressions. The present research examined the extent to which these categorization patterns extended to Multiracial children, with both White and Black participants. Consistent with past research, both White and Black participants categorized Multiracial children as more Black than White. Counter to what was found with Multiracial adults in previous research, emotional expressions (e.g., happy vs. angry) did not moderate how Multiracial children were categorized. Additionally, for Black participants, anti-White bias was correlated with categorizing Multiracial children as more White than Black. The developmental and cultural implications of these data are discussed, as they provide new insight into the important role that age plays in Multiracial person perception.

Affiliations: 1: Department of PsychologyUniversity of Michigan sothello@umich.edu ; 2: Department of PsychologyUniversity of Michigan

10.1163/15685373-12340005
/content/journals/10.1163/15685373-12340005
dcterms_title,pub_keyword,dcterms_description,pub_author
10
5
Loading
Loading

Full text loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/15685373-12340005
Loading

Data & Media loading...

1. Bargh J. A., Chen M., Burrows L 1996"Automaticity of social behavior: Direct effects of trait construct and stereotype activation on action" Journal of Personality and Social PsychologyVol 71 230 244 doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.71.2.230 [Crossref]
2. Blascovich J., Wyer N. A., Swart L. A., Kibler J. L. 1997"Racism and racial categorization" Journal of Personality and Social PsychologyVol 72 1364 1372 doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.72.6.1364 [Crossref]
3. Bobo L. 1998"Race, interests, and beliefs about affirmative action: Unanswered questions and new directions" American Behavioral Scientist Vol 41 985 1003 doi: 10.1177/0002764298041007009 [Crossref]
4. Chen J., Hamilton D. 2012"Natural ambiguities: Racial categorization of Multiracial individuals" Journal of Experimental Social PsychologyVol 48 152 164 doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2011.10.005 [Crossref]
5. Chen J., Moons W., Gaither S., Hamilton D., Sherman J. 2014"Motivation to control prejudice predicts categorization of Multiracials" Personality and Social Psychology BulletinVol 40 590 603 doi: 10.1177/0146167213520457 [Crossref]
6. Davis F. J. 1991 Who is black? One nation’s definition University Park Pennsylvania State University Press
7. Devine P. G. 1989"Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled components" Journal of Personality and Social PsychologyVol 56 5 18 doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.56.1.5 [Crossref]
8. Dunham Y. 2011"An angry = outgroup effect" Journal of Experimental Social PsychologyVol 47 668 671 doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2011.01.003 [Crossref]
9. Dunham Y., Olson K. R. 2016"Beyond discrete categories: Studying multiracial, intersex, and transgender children will strengthen basic developmental science" Journal of Cognition and DevelopmentVol 17 642 644 doi: 10.1080/15248372.2016.1195388 [Crossref]
10. Federico C. M., Sidanius J. 2002"Racism, ideology, and affirmative action revisited: The antecedents and consequences of ‘principled objections’ to affirmative action" Journal of Personality and Social PsychologyVol 82 488 502 doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.82.4.488 [Crossref]
11. Franco M. G., Franco S. A. 2016"Impact of identify invalidation for Black Multiracial people: The importance of race of perpetrator" Journal of Black Psychology Advance online publication. doi: 10.1177/0095798415604796
12. Franco M. G., Katz R.,, O’Brien K. M. 2016"Forbidden identities: A qualitative examination of racial identity invalidation for Black/White biracial individuals" International Journal of Intercultural Relations 50 96 109 doi: 10.1016/j/ijintrel/2015/12/004 [Crossref]
13. Goff P., Jackson M., Leone B., Culotta C., Ditomasso N. 2014"The essence of innocence: Consequences of dehumanizing Black children" Journal of Personality and Social PsychologyVol 106 526 545 doi: 10.1037/a0035663 [Crossref]
14. Harris H. L. 2013"A national survey of school counselors’ perceptions of Multiracial students" Professional School CounselingVol 17 1 19 doi: 10.5330/PSC.n.2013–17.1 [Crossref]
15. Hirschfeld L. A. 1995 "Do children have a theory of race?" CognitionVol 54 209 252 doi: 10.1016/0010-0277(95)91425-r [Crossref]
16. Ho A. K., Roberts S. O., Gelman S. A. 2015"Essentialism and racial bias jointly contribute to the categorization of Multiracial individuals" Psychological ScienceVol 26 1639 1645 doi: 10.1177/0956797615596436 [Crossref]
17. Ho A. K., Sidanius J., Cuddy A. J., Banaji M. R. 2013"Status boundary enforcement and the categorization of Black–White biracials" Journal of Experimental Social PsychologyVol 49 940 943 doi: 10.1016/j/jesp.2013.04.010 [Crossref]
18. Ho A. K., Sidanius J., Levin D., Banaji M. 2011"Evidence for hypodescent and racial hierarchy in the categorization and perception of biracial individuals" Journal of Personality and Social PsychologyVol 100 492 506 doi: 10.1037/a0021562 [Crossref]
19. Hugenberg K., Bodenhausen G. V. 2004"Ambiguity in social categorization. The role of prejudice and facial affect in race categorization" Psychological ScienceVol 15 342 345 doi: 141.213.236.110 [Crossref]
20. Kang S. K., Chasteen A. L. 2009 "Beyond the double-jeopardy hypothesis: Assessing emotion on the faces of multiply-categorizable targets of prejudice" Journal of Experimental Social PsychologyVol 45 1281 1285 doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2009.07.002 [Crossref]
21. Jacobs J. H. 1992"Identity development in biracial children" Root M. P. P. Racially mixed people in America 190 206 Newbury Park, CA Sage
22. Krosch A. R., Amodio D. M. 2014"Economic scarcity alters the perception of race" Proceedings of the National Academy of SciencesVol 111 9079 9084 doi: 10.1073/pnas.1404448111 [Crossref]
23. Krosch A. R., Berntsen L., Amodio D. M., Jost J. T., Van Bavel J. J. 2013 "On the ideology of hypodescent: Political conservatism predicts categorization of racially ambiguous faces as Black" Journal of Experimental Social PsychologyVol 49 1196 1203 doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2013.05.009 [Crossref]
24. LoBue V., Thrasher C. 2014"The Child Affective Facial Expression (cafe) set" Databrary Retrieved from http://databrary.org/volume/30
25. Meissner C. A., Brigham J. C. 2001"Thirty years of investigating the own-race bias in memory for faces: A meta-analytic review" Psychology, Public Policy, and LawVol 7 3 35 doi: 10.1037/1076–8971.7.1.1 [Crossref]
26. Nidiffer J., Bouman J. P. 2004"‘The University of the Poor’: The University of Michigan’s transition from admitting impoverished students to studying poverty, 1870–1910" American Educational Research JournalVol 41 35 67 doi: 10.3102/00028312041001035 [Crossref]
27. Okonofua J. A., Eberhardt J. L. 2015"Two strikes: Race and the disciplining of young students" Psychological ScienceVol 26 617 624 doi: 10.1177/0956797615570365 [Crossref]
28. Peery D., Bodenhausen G. 2008"Black + White = Black: Hypodescent in reflexive categorization of racially ambiguous faces" Psychological ScienceVol 19 973 977 doi: 10.1111/j.14667–9280.2008.02185.x [Crossref]
29. Pew Research Center 2015 Chapter 1: Race and Multiracial Americans in the U.S. Census Retrieved from http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2015/06/11/chapter-1-race-and-Multiracial-americans-in-the-u-s-census/#
30. Ranganath K. A., Smith C. T., Nosek B. A. 2008"Distinguishing automatic and controlled components of attitudes from direct and indirect measurement methods" Journal of Experimental Social PsychologyVol 44 386 396 doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2006.12.008 [Crossref]
31. Rhodes M., Gelman S. A. 2009"A developmental examination of the conceptual structure of animal, artifact, and human social categories across two cultural contexts" Cognitive PsychologyVol 59 244 274 doi: 10.1016/j.cogpsych.2009.05.001 [Crossref]
32. Roberts S. O., Gelman S. A. 2015"Do children see in Black and White? Children’s and adults’ categorizations of Multiracial individuals" Child DevelopmentVol 86 1830 1847 doi: 10.1111/cdev.12410 [Crossref]
33. Roberts S. O., Gelman S. A. 2017"Multiracial children’s and adults’ categorizations of Multiracial individuals" Journal of Cognition and Development doi: 10.1080/15248372.2015.1086772
34. Rowley S. J., Camacho T. C. 2015"Increasing diversity in cognitive developmental research: Issues and solutions" Journal of Cognition and DevelopmentVol 16 683 692 doi: 10.1080/15248372.2014.976224 [Crossref]
35. Skinner A. L., Nicolas G. 2015"Looking Black or looking back? Using phenotype and ancestry to make racial categorizations" Journal of Experimental Social PsychologyVol 57 55 63 doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2014.11.011 [Crossref]
36. Todd A. R., Thiem K. C., Neel R. 2016"Does seeing faces of young Black boys facilitate the identification of threatening stimuli?" Psychological Science Vol 27 384 393 doi: 10.1177/0956797615624492 [Crossref]
37. Tran A. T., Miyake E. R., Martinez-Morales V., Csizmadia A. 2016"‘What are you?’ Multiracial individuals’ responses to racial identification inquiries" Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority PsychologyVol 22 26 37 doi: 10.1037/cdp0000031 [Crossref]
38. Williams M., Eberhardt J. 2008"Biological conceptions of race and the motivation to cross racial boundaries" Journal of Personality and Social PsychologyVol 94 1033 1047 doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.U.S [Crossref]
39. u.s. Census 2011 Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010. U.S. Department of Commerce Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-02.pdf .
http://brill.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1163/15685373-12340005
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/15685373-12340005
2017-10-06
2017-11-22

Sign-in

Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
     
    Journal of Cognition and Culture — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation