Cookies Policy
X

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

What Made Sahar Scared?: Imaginary and Realistic Causes in Palestinian and American Children’s Concept for Fear

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Journal of Cognition and Culture

Young children associate fear with monsters, ghosts, and other imaginary creatures more than with real threats to safety, such as robbers or bullies – at least in Western societies. Cross-cultural studies are rare, are limited to older children, and have not asked if the role of the imagination extends to emotions other than fear. In this study, young Palestinian and American children (60 in each group, 3–7 years, age- and sex-matched) were asked to tell stories in which they generated a cause for fear as well as happiness, sadness, anger and surprise. Imaginary creatures were rarely cited as the cause of any emotion other than fear, but were cited frequently for fear by both Palestinians and Americans. There was also a cultural difference: Palestinians generated significantly fewer imaginary and more realistic causes for fear than did Americans. Thus, imaginary causes are a part of Palestinian children’s fear concept, but imaginary causes are not primary as they are for American children; for Palestinian children, realistic causes are primary in their fear concept.

Affiliations: 1: Department of Psychology, Boston College301 McGuinn Hall, 140 Commonwealth Avenue, Chestnut Hill, ma 02467USA

10.1163/15685373-12342139
/content/journals/10.1163/15685373-12342139
dcterms_title,pub_keyword,dcterms_description,pub_author
10
5
Loading
Loading

Full text loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/15685373-12342139
Loading

Data & Media loading...

1. Barrett H.C. Buss D.M. "Adaptations to predators and prey" The handbook of evolutionary psychology 2005 Hoboken, NJ John Wiley and Sons 200 223
2. Bauer D.H. "An exploratory study of developmental changes in children’s fears" Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 1976 Vol 17 69 74 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1976.tb00375.x
3. Bleuler E. Rappaport D. "Autistic thinking" Organization and pathology of thought 1951 New York, NY Columbia University Press 199 437 (Originally published in 1912 as Das autistische Denken, Jahrbuch fϋr Psychoanalytische und Psychpathologische Forschungen4, 1-39).
4. Boyer P. , Bergstrom B. "Threat-detection in child development: An evolutionary perspective" Neuroscience and Behavioral Reviews 2011 Vol 35 1034 1041 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2010.08.010
5. Burkhardt K. , Loxton H. , Muris P. "Fears and fearfulness in South-African children" Behaviour Change 2003 Vol 20 94 102 http://dx.doi.org/10.1375/bech.20.2.94.24837
6. Camras L.A. , Grow C. , Ribordy S. "Recognition of emotional expressions by abused children" Journal of Clinical and Child Psychology 1983 Vol 12 325 328
7. Denham A. , Zoller D. "‘When my hamster died, I cried’: Preschoolers’ attributions of the causes of emotions" Journal of Genetic Psychology 1991 Vol 152 371 373 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00221325.1991.9914693
8. Elbedour S. , Shulman S. , Kedem P. "Children’s fears: Cultural and developmental perspectives" Behaviour Research and Therapy 1997 Vol 35 491 496 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967(97)00012-0
9. Fehr B. , Russell J.A. "Concept of emotion viewed from a prototype perspective" Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 1984 Vol 113 464 486 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.113.3.464
10. Flavell J.H. , Flavell E.R. , Green F.L. "Young children’s knowledge about the apparent-real and pretend – real distinctions" Developmental Psychology 1987 Vol 23 816 822 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.23.6.816
11. Hall G.S. "A study of fears" American Journal of Psychology 1987 Vol 8 147 249 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1410940
12. Harris P. The work of the imagination 2000 Oxford Blackwell
13. Harris P. , Brown E. , Marriott C. , Whittall S. , Harmer S. "Monsters, ghosts and witches: Testing the limits of the fantasy-reality distinction in young children" British Journal of Developmental Psychology 1991 Vol 9 105 123 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-835X.1991.tb00865.x
14. Ingman I. , Ollendick T. , Akande A. "Cross-cultural aspects of fears in African children and adolescents" Behaviour Research and Therapy 1999 Vol 37 337 345 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967(98)00108-9
15. Jersild A. Barker R.G. , Kounin J.S. , Wright H.F. "Study of children’s fears" Child Behavior and Development 1943 New York, NY McGraw Hill 329 344
16. Leslie A.M. "Pretending and believing" Cognition 1994 Vol 50 211 238 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0010-0277(94)90029-9
17. Maduewesi E. "Nigerian elementary children’s interests and concerns" Alberta Journal of Educational Research 1982 Vol 28 204 211
18. Piaget J. The origins of intelligence in children 1952 New York, NY International Universities Press http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11494-000
19. Piaget J. Play, dreams, and imitation in childhood 1962 New York, NY W.W. Norton
20. Russell J.A. Saarni C. , Harris P.L. "Culture, scripts, and children’s understanding of emotion" Children’s understanding of emotion 1989 Cambridge Cambridge University Press 293 318
21. Samuels A. , Taylor M. "Children’s ability to distinguish fantasy events from real-life events" British Journal of Developmental Psychology 1994 Vol 12 417 427 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-835X.1994.tb00644.x
22. Sayfan L. , Lagattuta K. "Grownups are not afraid of scary stuff, but kids are: Young children’s and adults’ understanding of children’s, infants’, and adults’ fears" Child Development 2008 Vol 79 821 835 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01161.x
23. Sayfan L. , Lagattuta K. "Scaring the monster away: What children know about managing fears of real and imaginary creatures" Child Development 2009 Vol 80 1756 1774 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01366.x
24. Strayer J. "Children’s attributions regarding the situational determinants of emotion in self and others" Developmental Psychology 1986 Vol 22 649 654 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.22.5.649
25. Taylor M. , Cartwright B. , Carlson S. "A developmental investigation of children’s imaginary companions" Developmental Psychology 1993 Vol 29 276 285 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.29.2.276
26. Vandewiele M. "Fears of Senegalese secondary school students" The Journal of Interdisciplinary and Applied Psychology 1981 Vol 107 281 287 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00223980.1981.9915235
27. Wellman H. , Estes D. "Early understanding of mental entities: A reexamination of childhood realism" Child Development 1986 Vol 57 910 923 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1130367
28. Widen S.C. , Russell J.A. Lewis M. , Haviland-Jones J.M. "Young children’s understanding of other’s emotions" Handbook of emotions 2008 New York, NY Guilford 348 363
29. Woolley J.D. , Phelps K.E. "Young children’s practical reasoning about imagination" British Journal of Development Psychology 1994 Vol 12 53 67 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-835X.1994.tb00618.x
http://brill.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1163/15685373-12342139
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/15685373-12342139
2015-03-17
2018-07-16

Sign-in

Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
     
    Journal of Cognition and Culture — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation