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Genetic differentiation of the common toad (Bufo bufo) in the Swiss Alps

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We analysed the genetic differentiation of tadpoles from 24 Swiss populations of Bufo b. bufo and B. b. spinosus, using horizontal starch gel electrophoresis of eight enzymes coded by ten loci. For comparison, we included ten populations from more distant localities. Populations of Bufo calamita were included as outgroup. A very low level of genetic differentiation was found among populations from the Alpine region, including B. b. bufo populations from the Czech Republic and northern Germany, and B. b. spinosus populations from northern Italy. Genetic differentiation within populations was much higher than differentiation among populations or regions. In contrast, the southern French B. b. spinosus populations were clearly differentiated by allele substitution at three out of ten loci scored. These alleles of the French populations, however, were also found in low frequencies in some populations from western Switzerland and Italy. This is interpreted to result from gene flow. Morphometric data of adult B. bufo (13 populations, 174 adult toads) turned out to be strongly size dependent. However, relative arm length and density of large warts ventral to the parotoids showed differences between the two subspecies.

Affiliations: 1: Institute of Zoology, Division of Population Biology, University of Berne, Baltzerstrasse 3, CH-3012 Berne, Switzerland; Natural History Museum Berne, Bernastrasse 15, CH-3005 Berne, Switzerland; 2: Natural History Museum Berne, Bernastrasse 15, CH-3005 Berne, Switzerland; 3: Institute of Zoology, Division of Population Biology, University of Berne, Baltzerstrasse 3, CH-3012 Berne, Switzerland

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/content/journals/10.1163/15685380152030373
2001-04-01
2016-12-10

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