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Mitochondrial phylogeography of European pond turtles (Emys orbicularis, Emys trinacris) – an update

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Based on more than 1100 samples of Emys orbicularis and E. trinacris, data on mtDNA diversity and distribution of haplotypes are provided, including for the first time data for Armenia, Georgia, Iran, and the Volga, Ural and Turgay River Basins of Russia and Kazakhstan. Eight mitochondrial lineages comprising 51 individual haplotypes occur in E. orbicularis, a ninth lineage with five haplotypes corresponds to E. trinacris. A high diversity of distinct mtDNA lineages and haplotypes occurs in the south, in the regions where putative glacial refuges were located. More northerly parts of Europe and adjacent Asia, which were recolonized by E. orbicularis in the Holocene, display distinctly less variation; most refuges did not contribute to northern recolonizations. Also in certain southern European lineages a decrease of haplotype diversity is observed with increasing latitude, suggestive of Holocene range expansions on a smaller scale.

Affiliations: 1: Museum of Zoology (Museum für Tierkunde), Natural History State Collections Dresden, A. B. Meyer Building, D-01109 Dresden, Germany; 2: Institute of Pharmacy and Molecular Biotechnology, Heidelberg University, INF 364, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany; University of Kassel, FB1, Systematik und Morphologie der Pflanzen, Heinrich-Plett-Str. 40, D-34132 Kassel, Germany; 3: Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Golestan Province, Iran; 4: Department of Biology, Yerevan State University, Alek Maukyan 1, Yerevan, 375025, Armenia; 5: Ege University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Zoology Section, TR-35100 Bornova-Izmir, Turkey; 6: Grupo de Ecoloxía Evolutiva, Departamento de Ecoloxía e Bioloxía Animal, Universidade de Vigo, E.U.E.T. Forestal, Campus Universitario, E-36005 Pontevedra, Spain; 7: Institute of Ecology of the Volga River Basin, Russian Academy of Sciences, Komzina 10, Togliatti, 445003, Russia; 8: Dipartimento di Ecologia, Università degli Studi della Calabria, I-87030 Arcavacata di Rende, Italy; 9: Institute for Biological Research "Siniša Stanković", Bulevar Despota Stefana 142, 11060 Belgrade, Serbia; 10: Département de Biologie, Faculté des Sciences, Université Abdelmalek Essaâdi, BP. 2121, Tétouan, Morocco; 11: Fauna Carpatica, Titogradská 18, SK-040 23 Košice, Slovakia; 12: Staatliches Naturhistorisches Museum, Pockelsstr. 10, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany; 13: Faculty of Biology, Bashkir State University, Frunze Street 32, Ufa, 450074, Bashkortostan, Russia; 14: Department of Zoology, Dagestan State University, 37a M. Gadyeva st., Makhachkala, 367025, Dagestan, Russia; 15: Department of Biology and Wildlife Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Palackého 1-3, CZ-612 42 Brno, Czech Republic; 16: Departamento de Vertebrados, Aranzadi Society of Sciences, Zorroagagaina 11, E-20014 Donostia-San Sebastián, Gipuzkoa, Spain; 17: Institute of Pharmacy and Molecular Biotechnology, Heidelberg University, INF 364, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany


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