Cookies Policy
X

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Effects of predation risk factors on escape behavior by Balearic lizards (Podarcis lilfordi) in relation to optimal escape theory

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Buy this article

Price:
$30.00+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites

image of Amphibia-Reptilia

Escape theory predicts that flight initiation distance (FID = predator-prey distance when escape begins) increases as predation risk increases. We tested effects of variation of approach speed and directness, predator persistence, concealment, and weather conditions on FID in the Balearic lizard (Podarcis lilfordi) by ourselves simulating predators. We examined effects of directness of approach on probability of fleeing and of repeated approach on entering refuge and distance fled. As predicted, FID was greater for faster approach speed, more direct approach, during second than first approaches, and when lizards were exposed than partially concealed. Other effects of directness of approach and repeated approach also were as predicted by greater assessed risk by the lizards. The proportion of individuals that fled was greater for direct than indirect approaches. The proportion of lizards that entered refuges and distance fled were greater during the second of two successive approaches. Effects of weather on FID were complex. FID was shortest in the warmest conditions with no noticeable wind, when lizards were active. Lizards were inactive and basked in the other conditions. FID was longest at 20°C without wind, and intermediate FID occurred at 18°C in windy conditions. We present hypotheses for weather effects. Tests are needed to unravel effects of temperature and wind speed. All predictions of escape theory for simple risk factors, i.e., all except than weather conditions, were confirmed. Escape theory successfully predicts FID for these risks in P. lilfordi, other lacertids, and more broadly, in ecologically and taxonomically diverse lizards.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/156853809787392720
2009-02-01
2015-07-03

Affiliations: 1: Department of Biology, Indiana University Purdue University Fort Wayne, Fort Wayne, IN 46805, USA; 2: School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, Yale University, 370 Prospect St., New Haven CT 06511, USA; 3: Departamento de Biologia Animal, Universidad de Salamanca, 37071 Salamanca, Spain

Sign-in

Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to email alerts
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Name:*
    Email:*
    Your details
    Name:*
    Email:*
    Department:*
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
     
     
     
     
    Other:
     
    Amphibia-Reptilia — Recommend this title to your library

    Thank you

    Your recommendation has been sent to your librarian.

  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation