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Full Access Internal features of larvae belonging to two species of Pseudopaludicola (Anura: Leiuperinae)

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Internal features of larvae belonging to two species of Pseudopaludicola (Anura: Leiuperinae)

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We described the buccal cavity, chondrocranium, and cranial muscles in tadpoles of two species of Pseudopaludicola: P. boliviana (P. pusilla species group) and P. falcipes. The two species share states of only three relevant and informative characters: (1) absence of m. levator mandibularis lateralis, (2) absence of m. levator mandibularis externus superficialis at advanced premetamorphic stages, and (3) presence of long lateral arena papillae of both the roof and floor of the buccal cavity. The larvae of P. falcipes is diagnosed by (states of P. boliviana between parentheses): (1) three lingual papillae (four), (2) one-two pairs of short and blunt infralabial papillae (single pair of multifid papillae), (3) low median ridge (tall), (4) distal connection between pars corpora and pars alaris of the cartilago suprarostralis present (absent), and (5) m. subarcualis rectus II-IV inserted at ceratobranchiale I (ceratobranchiale II insertion). The combination of a processus pseudopterygoideus together with proximal and distal connections on the cartilago suprarostralis occurs in most species of Pleurodema as well. Absence of m. levator mandibularis lateralis is also known for Physalaemus fernandezae and absence of m. levator mandibularis externus superficialis at advanced stages of development (Stage 39 onward) is shared with Edalorhina perezi and Pleurodema diplolister.

Affiliations: 1: 1Sección Herpetología, Instituto de Limnología “Dr. Raúl A. Ringuelet” (ILPLA-CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina; 2: 2Centro Nacional Patagónico (CENPAT-CONICET), Puerto Madryn, Chubut, Argentina

We described the buccal cavity, chondrocranium, and cranial muscles in tadpoles of two species of Pseudopaludicola: P. boliviana (P. pusilla species group) and P. falcipes. The two species share states of only three relevant and informative characters: (1) absence of m. levator mandibularis lateralis, (2) absence of m. levator mandibularis externus superficialis at advanced premetamorphic stages, and (3) presence of long lateral arena papillae of both the roof and floor of the buccal cavity. The larvae of P. falcipes is diagnosed by (states of P. boliviana between parentheses): (1) three lingual papillae (four), (2) one-two pairs of short and blunt infralabial papillae (single pair of multifid papillae), (3) low median ridge (tall), (4) distal connection between pars corpora and pars alaris of the cartilago suprarostralis present (absent), and (5) m. subarcualis rectus II-IV inserted at ceratobranchiale I (ceratobranchiale II insertion). The combination of a processus pseudopterygoideus together with proximal and distal connections on the cartilago suprarostralis occurs in most species of Pleurodema as well. Absence of m. levator mandibularis lateralis is also known for Physalaemus fernandezae and absence of m. levator mandibularis externus superficialis at advanced stages of development (Stage 39 onward) is shared with Edalorhina perezi and Pleurodema diplolister.

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/content/journals/10.1163/15685381-00002870
2013-01-01
2016-12-05

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