Cookies Policy
X

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Morphological differentiation between the larval forms of two cryptic species of dusky salamander (Desmognathus)

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Amphibia-Reptilia

Desmognathus quadramaculatus and D. folkertsi are cryptic salamander species that occur sympatrically across the entire range of the latter species. However, the larval form of D. folkertsi has never been formally described, and studies of salamander larval communities within its range require the ability to distinguish it from its cryptic relative. We conducted morphometric analyses in order to compare the larval forms of these two species living in allopatry and searched for characters that may be useful in distinguishing them in the field. Larvae of D. quadramaculatus had a larger average body size than D. folkertsi, and larger specimens of the former species had redder tail fins. MANCOVA indicated significant differences in a suite of 22 morphological characters between the two species. Additional principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA) indicated strong separation of factor and discriminant scores, respectively. Besides body size and tail-fin color, the best potential field character appears to be the forelimb length (FLL)/snout-vent length (SVL) ratio with larvae of D. quadramaculatus having a ratio above 0.2 and those of D. folkertsi having a lower ratio. However, these differences need to be confirmed in sympatry before they can be completely relied upon as useful field characters.

Affiliations: 1: 1Piedmont College Department of Biology Demorest, GA, USA; 2: 2The University of Findlay Department of Biology Findlay, OH 45840, USA

Loading

Full text loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/15685381-00002922
Loading

Data & Media loading...

1. Arnold S.J. ( 2000): "Systematics at the turn of a century". In: The Biology of Plethodontid Salamanders, p.  167- 178. Bruce R.C. , Jaeger R.G. , Houck L.D. , Eds, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, USA. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-4255-1_7
2. Austin R.M. Jr. , Camp C.D. ( 1992): "Larval development of black-bellied salamanders, Desmognathus quadramaculatus, in northeastern Georgia". Herpetologica Vol 48: 313- 317.
3. Beachy C.K. ( 1995): "Effects of larval growth history on metamorphosis in a stream-dwelling salamander ( Desmognathus)". Journal of Herpetology Vol 29: 375- 382. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1564987
4. Borreto R.E. , Gontijo A.M.M.C. , Alves-de-Lima R.O. , Raymundi V.C. , Pinhal D. , Reyes V.A.V. , Volpato G.L. , Salvadori D.M.F. ( 2007): "MS-222 does not induce primary DNA damage in fish". Aquaculture International Vol 15: 163- 168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10499-007-9073-6
5. Bruce R.C. ( 1988): "Life history variation in the salamander Desmognathus quadramaculatus ". Herpetologica Vol 44: 218- 227.
6. Cakir Y. , Strauch S.M. ( 2005): "Tricaine (MS-222) is a safe anesthetic compound compared to benzocaine and pentobarbital to induce anesthesia in leopard frogs ( Rana pipiens)". Pharmacological Reports Vol 57: 467- 474.
7. Camp C.D. ( 2004): " Desmognathus folkertsiCamp, Tilley, Austin, and Marshall". Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles Vol 782: 1- 3.
8. Camp C.D. , Marshall J.L. ( 2006): "Reproductive life history of Desmognathus folkertsi(Dwarf Black-bellied Salamander)". Southeastern Naturalist Vol 5: 669- 684. http://dx.doi.org/10.1656/1528-7092(2006)5[669:RLHODF]2.0.CO;2
9. Camp C.D. , Marshall J.L. , Landau K.R. , Austin R.M. Jr. , Tilley S.G. ( 2000): "Sympatric occurrence of two species of the Two-lined Salamander ( Eurycea bislineata) complex". Copeia Vol 2000: 572- 578. http://dx.doi.org/10.1643/0045-8511(2000)000[0572:SOOTSO]2.0.CO;2
10. Camp C.D. , Tilley S.G. , Austin R.M. Jr. , Marshall J.L. ( 2002): "A new species of black-bellied salamander (genus Desmognathus) from the Appalachian Mountains of northern Georgia". Herpetologica Vol 58: 471- 484. http://dx.doi.org/10.1655/0018-0831(2002)058[0471:ANSOBS]2.0.CO;2
11. Camp C.D. , Wooten J.A. , Corbet C.M. , Dulka E.A. , Mitchem J.A. , Krieger T.J. ( 2013): "Ecological interactions between two broadly sympatric, cryptic species of dusky salamander (genus Desmognathus)". Copeia Vol 2014: 499- 506. http://dx.doi.org/10.1643/CE-12-121
12. Carr D.E. ( 1996): "Morphological variation among species and populations of salamanders in the Plethodon glutinosuscomplex". Herpetologica Vol 52: 56- 65.
13. Chippindale P.T. , Price A.H. , Hillis D.M. ( 1998): "Systematic status of the San Marco Salamander, Eurycea nana(Caudata: Plethodontidae)". Copeia Vol 1998: 1046- 1049. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1447356
14. Crespi E.J. , Browne R.A. , Rissler L.J. ( 2010): "Taxonomic revision of Desmognathus wrighti(Caudata: Plethodontidae)". Herpetologica Vol 66: 283- 295. http://dx.doi.org/10.1655/HERPETOLOGICA-D-09-00002.1
15. Davis D.R. , Pauley G.B. ( 2011): "Morphological variation among populations of the western slimy salamander on the Edwards Plateau of central Texas". Copeia Vol 2011: 103- 112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1643/CH-09-217
16. Highton R. ( 1989): "Biochemical evolution in the slimy salamanders of the Plethodon glutinosuscomplex in the eastern United States. Part I. Geographic protein variation". Illinois Biological Monographs Vol 57: 1- 78.
17. Highton R. ( 1997): "Geographic protein variation and speciation in the Plethodon dorsaliscomplex". Herpetologica Vol 53: 345- 356.
18. Jacobs J.F. ( 1987): "A preliminary investigation of geographic variation and systematic of the two-lined salamander, Eurycea bislineata(Green)". Herpetologica Vol 43: 423- 446.
19. Jockusch E.L. , Yanev K.P. , Wake D.B. ( 2001): "Molecular phylogenetic analysis of slender salamander, genus Batrachoseps(Amphibia: Plethodontidae), from central coastal California with descriptions of four new species". Herpetological Monographs Vol 15: 54- 99. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1467038
20. Kinkead K.E. , Lanham T.D. , Montanucci R.R. ( 2006): "Comparison of anesthesia and marking techniques on stress and behavioral responses in two Desmognathussalamanders". Journal of Herpetology Vol 40: 323- 328. http://dx.doi.org/10.1670/0022-1511(2006)40[323:COAAMT]2.0.CO;2
21. Mueller R.L. , Macey J.R. , Jaekel M. , Wake D.B. , Boore J.L. ( 2004): "Morphological homoplasy, life history evolution, and historical biogeography of plethodontid salamanders inferred from complete mitochondrial genomes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Vol 101: 13820- 13825. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0405785101
22. Parra-Olea G. , Wake D.B. ( 2001): "Extreme morphological and ecological homoplasy in tropical salamanders". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Vol 98: 7888- 7891. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.131203598
23. Petranka J.W. ( 1998): Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.
24. Tilley S.G. ( 1981): "A new species of Desmognathus ochrophaeuscomplex (Amphibia: Caudata: Plethodontidae) from the southern Appalachian Mountains". Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan Vol 695: 1- 23.
25. Tilley S.G. , Eriksen R.L. , Katz L.A. ( 2008): "Systematics of dusky salamanders, Desmognathus(Caudata: Plethodontidae), in the mountain and Piedmont regions of Virginia and North Carolina, USA". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society Vol 152: 115- 130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2007.00336.x
26. Tilley S.G. , Mahoney M.J. ( 1996): "Patterns of genetic differentiation in salamanders of the Desmognathus ochrophaeuscomplex (Amphibia: Plethodontidae)". Herpetological Monographs Vol 10: 1- 42. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1466979
27. Wake D.B. ( 1991): "Homoplasy: the result of natural selection, or evidence of design limitations?" American Naturalist Vol 138: 543- 567. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/285234
28. Watson M.B. , Pauley T.K. , Camp C.D. ( 2005): " Desmognathus quadramaculatus(Holbrook, 1840): Black-bellied Salamander". In: Amphibian Declines: The Conservation Status of United States Species, p.  723- 726. Lannoo M. , Ed., University of California Press, Berkeley, California, USA.
29. Wooten J.A. , Camp C.D. , Rissler L.J. ( 2010): "Genetic diversity in a narrowly endemic, recently described dusky salamander, Desmognathus folkertsi, from the southern Appalachian Mountains". Conservation Genetics Vol 11: 835- 854. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10592-009-9916-y
http://brill.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1163/15685381-00002922
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/15685381-00002922
2014-01-01
2017-10-19

Sign-in

Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
     
    Amphibia-Reptilia — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation